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purchased pardons from punishment

Martin Luther

wrote 95 theses against indulgences

Luther's teachings

deceased the role of the clergy

The angelic church was formed as a result of

Henry VIII's fight with the pope about his divorce

Calvinists believed that

some people were predestined for salvation

Luther helped popularize his faith by printing a German language bible.


Ptolemy's model of the universe excluded any reference to heaven



was the first country to grant diplomatic recognition to the new American state


offspring of Africans and Europeans

stamp act

British tax on certain printed materials

after the war, Ottomon lands were divided into


In 1918, Europe was

in ruins

The "soft underbelly of the axis" referred to

Italy and the Balkans

The U.S. wanted Eastern European nations to be under western control to provide a buffer against soviet invasions.


The Truman Doctrine was part of a plan to stop the spread of communism.


As soviet leader, Krushchev

denounced Stalinist repression and restrictions.

As a welfare state, Great Britain

provided social welfare for citizens

The European Community was formed to resolve differences between nations and prevent wars.


After Franco's Nationalists defeated the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War, what type of government did spain have?

Fascist Government

In the D-Day invasion, the allies surrounded German forces by sending in troops by boat along the coast of Normandy by

sending paratroopers into mainland France

The right to choose one's own religion in the Holy Roman Empire was granted by the

Peace of Augsberg

What did Mary Wollenscraft believe was a natural ingredient for women's happiness?

strong education

What did the Constitution of the U.S. do?

It created a federal system of power sharing between the national and state govenments

Austria issued Serbia a ten-part ultimatum in response to

The role of Serbian and slavic nationalists in the assassination of the Austrian Archduke.

what role did women play in war?

They kept their nations' economies going during the war

After Spain's split, Germany and Italy quickly sent aid to the conservative


Which of these is a mutual defense agreement formed by western nations during the beginning of the Cold War?


Germany was successful in recovery after the war, in part because it became


Francesco Petrarch was concerned that his efforts for fame would

ruin his chanc at salvation

What people were unhappy with the printing of thebible?


what country was the first to officially split from the Catholic church?


Who or what did Martin Luther see as the sole religious authority?

the Bible

what empire did Francisco Pizarro defeat?


Which of the following tactics was used by Francisco Pizarro in defeating the Incan Empire?

Diplomacy, force, and deceit

Modern warfare created

huge numbers of casualties in WW1, as compared to previous wars.

German forces were pushed back at the battle of Marne by

French and British forces

What was the outcome of the battles at Verdun?

Germany and France lost 500,000 soldiers

France maintained an

independent position in European affairs

Isabella D'este

patron of arts on an island called Mantua

Smaller tribes allied with the



god of the aztecs

Francisco Pizarro

conquered the incan Empire

Christopher Columbus

landed in the West Indies in 1492

what role did militarism play in the years before WW1?

European countries focused on building up their military forces

With Russia's retreat from war, Germany was able to concentrate troops on the

Western Front

according to the Treaty of Versailles, what nation was forced to take responsibility for WW1?


Why was Russia unhappy with the results of the Treaty of Versailles?

It was left out of peace talks

which of the following was not a criticism f the church in the 1500's?

Opponents believed the Church focused too heavily on spirituality and abondoned community

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