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139 terms

Anatomy 1-11

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White Matter
Myelinated fibers, mostly axons, that are located in the Central Nervous System
Spinal Nerve
Nerve that arises from the spinal cord
Sensory Nerve
Collection of sensory neurons that carry information toward the central nervous system
Reflex Arc
A nerve pathway that includes a receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron and effector organ
Plexus
Network of spina nerves that exit at vertebal column and divide into many fibers. Points where fibers converge are called a:
Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves and ganglia that lie outside the central nervous system
Nerve Tract
Group of neurons that share a common function within the central nervous system; may be ascending (sensory) or descending (motor)
Mixed Nerve
Nerve that contains both sensory and motor fibers
Gray Matter CNS
Part of the central nervous system that is composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Efferent neuron
A motor neuron; brings information from the CNS to the periphery
Crainial Nerve
The 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain
Afferent Neuron
Carrying toward a center, such as (this type of) a nerve carrying information toward the CNS
Epidural Anethesia Injection
Injected into dural membrane to deaden the lower pelvic region
Spinal anethesia Injection
Puncture between L-3 & L-4 (hip level) into subarachnoid space, deadens lumbar and sacral sensory nerves
Lumbar Puncture
Puncture between L-3 & L-4 into subarachnoid space usually for spinal tap
Between L-3 & L-4
Where do you inject for a lumbar puncture (between which vertebrae)
Subarachnoid space
Where do you inject for a lumbar puncture (what space)
Spinal Cord Major functions
Sensory & motor pathways & reflex center
Crutch Palsy
Damages axillary nerves because of weight of body in armpit
Gag Reflex
aka Pharyngeal reflex. Controlled by CN-II Glossopharyngeal nerve
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
What nerve is associated with the Gag Reflex
Fixed & Dilated eyes
Damage to CNIII oculomotor nerve will cause this, sometimes due to brain tumors or increased intracranial pressure
Oculomotor Nerve
Fixed & Dilated eyes, sometimes due to brain tumors or increased intracranial pressure. Damage to what nerve causes this
Baroreceptor Reflex
Receptor (reflex) that detects or senses change in blood pressure
Glossopharyngeal & Vegus
What cranial nerve(s) is (are) related to the Baroreceptor Reflex
Pharyngeal Reflex
Gag Reflex is also known as
Gag Reflex
Prevents something from entering the throat or airway and helps prevent choking
Reflexes
Automatic response (nervous or chemical) to a stimulus. Controlled by the spinal cord
Reflexes
Ability to walk & maintain balance requires hundreds of this type of movement
Ankle-jerk reflex
Stretch reflex, when mallet srikes Achilles tendon, causing plantar flexion
Lower spinal cord (L-5 to S-2)
When doing the Ankle-Jerk reflex we are testing what part of the spinal cord
Pupillary Reflex
Reflex that regulates amount of light that enters the eye
Organ Reflex
Reflex that helps regulate organ function
Withdrawal Reflex
Reflex that protects you from injury
Corneal Reflex
aka Blink Reflex. Involuntry blinking of the eyelids
Trigeminal Nerve
The Corneal reflex is related to what cranial nerve?
Reflex Arc Process
Receptor stimulated, Sensory neuron carries impulse to spinal cord, Motor neuron carries impulse back to muscle, Effector organ contracts muscles in response to impulse
Babinski Reflex
Striking lateral sole of foot in direction of heel to toe with hard blund object. Curling toes good. Dorsiflexion of big toe bad. Indicates damage or lesions in spinal cord
Knee-Jerk Reflex
AKA Patellar Reflex. Stretch reflex, the mallet strikes the patellar tendon below the knee in response the lower leg kicks up.
Knee-Jerk reflex
Reflex test used to check for impairement or damage to lumbar region of spinal cord or femoral nerve
Corticospinal Tract
Ascending tract. AKA Pyramidal tract. Innervates right site of body. Responsible for skeletal muscle tone and voluntary muscle movement
Spinothalamic Tract
Ascending tract. Carries sensory information for touch, pressure & pain from spinal cord to thalamus in brain
Ascending tracts
spinothalamic, Dorsal column and Spinocerebellar tracts are:
Decending Tracts
Pyramidal & extrapyramidal tracts are:
Extrapyramidal tract
Decending tract responsible for skeletal muscle activity such as balance and posuture
Nerve Tract
Group of neurons that share a common function within the central nervous system; may be ascending (sensory) or descending (motor)
Nerve Tract
White matter in spinal cord is composed of mylinated axons. These neuronal axons are grouped together into what?
Trigeminal Neuralgia
aka Tic Doulourex. bouts of facial pain from eating, shaving & exposure to cold
Dermatome
Area of body supplied by a spinal nerve. The distribution of nerves innervating a particular area of skin.
Dermatome
If skin of a region is stimulated with tip of a pin and person cannot feel it, there is probably damage to distribution of nerves called:
Basal Nuclei
aka Basal Gangli. Patches of gray matter scattered throughout the cerebral matter. Helps regulate body movement and facial expression. Neurotrasmitter dopamine largely responsible for activity.
Basal Nuclei
Neurotransmitter dopamine is largely responsible for activity in this nuclei
Parkinson's Disease
Deficiency of dopamine within the basal nuclei (which regulates body movement and facial expression) is present in this disease
Cortical Blindness
Damage to the occipital lobe will result in this.
Phases of Action Potential
Polarization - resting, Depolarization -stimulated, Refractory Period & repolarization -resting state again.
Refractory Period
Period during which nervous tissue cannot respond to a second stimulus
Broca's Area
usually located in left hemisphere (frontal lobe). For formation of words, movements of mouth & toungue.
Frontal Eye Field
Located in frontal lobe, usually L hemisphere. Controls voluntary movement of eyes and eyelids. Ability to scan a page.
Corpus Callosum
Bands of white matter that form a large fiber tract that join the cerebral hemispheres. Allows right and left sides of the brain to communicated with each other.
Endorphins
Natural morphine-like substances produced by the brain which bind to opiate receptors in CNS, moderating pain, relieving anxiety & producing sense of well being. Endogenous morphine & enkaphalins.
Brain Stem
Lower part of the brain that connects the brain with the spinal cord. Consists of Midbrain, Pons & Medulla Oblongata
Medula Oblongata
Extremely sensitive to certain drugs, especially narcotics (opioids). Overdose of a narcotic causes depression of this organ and thus death because the person stops breathing
Medula Oblongata
aka Vital Center. Part of brain stem that controls vital functions such as respiratory & cardiovascular function. Relay for sensory & motor info for heart rate, blood pressure & respiration.
Acetylcholinesterase
Enzyme that desroys Acetycholine in NMJ near the muscle membrane of a dendrite
Function of Cranial Nerves
Sensory info for smell, taste, vision & hearing, touch, pressure, pain, temp & vibration. Motor info that results in contraction of skeletal muscles, secretion of glands & contractions of cardia & smooth muscle
Cranial Nerves
Nerves designated by Roman numerals and name. Numerals indicate order in which nerves exit brain front to back. Name indicates area served by the nerve. These nerves are called what?
Hypoglossal Nerve
CN-XII is primarily motor nerve. Controls movement of tongue, affecting speaking & swallowing. Damage causes tongue to deviate toward the injured site.
Hypoglossal Nerve
Damage causes tongue to deviate toward injured site relates to what nerve?
Accessory Nerve
N-XI is primarily motor nerve. Supplies sterncleidomastoid & trapezius muscles for movement of head & shoulders. Damage impairs ability to shrug shoulders
Accessory Nerve
Damage impairing ability to shrug shoulders relates to what nerve?
Vagus Nerve
CN-X is Mixed nerve. Innervates tongue, pharynx, larynx, many organs in thoracic & abdominal cavities, lungs, stomach & instestines. Also helps control blood pressure.
Vagus Nerve
Damage causing hoarseness or loss of voice, impaired swallowing, diminished motility of digestive tract, damage to both of both of these nerves can be Fatal, relates to what nerve?
Glossopharygeal Nerve
CN-IX is mixed nerve. Sensory carries taste from tongue. Motor stimulates secretion of salivary glands and innervates throat & aids in swalling. Gag Reflex & blood pressure. Damage results in loss of gag reflex and places you at risk for choking.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Loss of gag reflex placing you at risk for choking relates to what nerve?
Vestibolochochlear Nerve
CN-VIII is sensory nerve that carries info for hearing & balance from inner ear to brain. Equilibrium & balance & hearing. Damage causes loss of hearing, balance or both
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Loss of hearing, balance or both is related to what nerve?
Facial Nerve
CN-VII is mixed nerve, mostly motor functions. allows to smile, frown & make other faces. Stimulates saliva & tears & blinking, keeps cornea moist. Also taste. Damage to this area shows expression absent from one side. Bell's Palsy
Facial Nerve
Expression absent from one side, called Bell's Palsy is related to what nerve?
Abducens Nerve
CN-VI is primarily motor nerve that controls eye movement by innervating only 1 extrinsic eye muscle. Damage prevents lateral rotation of eye. Eyes drift medially (toward the nose)
Abducens Nerve
Damage prevents lateral rotation of eye. eyes drift medially (toward nose). What nerve is related to this?
Trigeminal Nerve
CN-IV, mixed nerve w/3 branches supplying facial region. Sensory info for touch, pressure and pain from face, scalp, eyes & teeth. Also Opthalmic branch detects sensory info from cornea so we blink & secrete tears. Motor branch innervates muscles of mastication. Damage is loss of sensation & impaired movement of the mandible & facial pain
Trigeminal nerve
Loss of sensation & impaired movement of the mandible & facial pain is related to what nerve?
Trochlear Nerve
CN-IV is motor nerve Innervates one of the extrinsic muscles of eyeball, helping move eyeball. Damage is double vision and inability to rotate eye properly.
Trochlear Nerve
Damage causing double vision and or inability to rotate eye properly relates to what nerve?
Oculomoter Nerve
CNIII is motor nerve that causes contraction of extrinsic eye muscles. Moves eyeball in socket, raises eyelid & constricts puple. Compression intereferes w/ability to respond to light, pupils become fixed & dilated and ptosis of eyelid. Tumors or crainial pressure
Oculomotor Nerve
Compression interfering with ability to respond to light and sluggish response of the pupils, along with fixed & dilated pupils and ptosis of eyelid relate to what nerve?
Optic Nerve
CN-II Visual information from eye to brain (occipital lobe). Damage shows diminished vision or blindness in affected eye.
Optic Nerve
Damage showing diminished vision or blindness in the affected eye relates to what nerve?
Olfactory Nerve
CN-1 Carries infromation from nose to brain. Concerned with sense of smell. Damage shows loss of sense of smell (anosmia) and loss of taste
Olfactory Nerve
Damage showing loss of sense of smell (anosmia) and loss of taste relate to what nerve?
Paraplegia
Spinal cord severed in lumbar region leaving a person paralyzed from the waist down is called
Quadriplegia
Spinal cord severed at the neck region (cervical are) leaving the trunk and all four extermities paralizyed is called
Pudendal Nerve
Nerve that innervates the penis & clitoris and areas around the scrotum, perineum & anus. A nerve block is done in this area during labor.
PNS Nerves
Phrenic, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar, Intercostal, Femoral, Sciatic, Common Peroneal & Tibial nerves are
Axillary Nerve
Controls muscles of the shoulder. Nerve emerges from Brachial Plexus and travels through shoulder into arm. Damage called Cruth Palsy
Axillary Nerve
Crutch Palsy causes damage to what nerve?
Unlar Nerve
Nerve serves muscles of wrist and many muscles in the hand. Damage is called Clawhand, inability to spread fingers apart.
Ulnar Nerve
Clawhand, inability to spread fingers apart shows damage to what nerve?
Sciatic Nerve
Nerve serves muscles of lower trunk and posterior thigh and leg. Longest nerve in the body. Damage causes inability to extend leg and flex knee.
Sciatic Nerve
Damage to this nerve causes inability to extend leg and flex knee.
Femoral Nerve
Nerve serves muscles of lower abdomen, anterior thigh & medial leg & foot. Damage causes inability to extend leg and flex hip.
Radial Nerve
Nerve serves muscles of posterior arm, forearm, hand, thumbs and first two fingers. Damage is called wristdrop (inability to lift or extend hand at wrist).
Radial Nerve
Wristdrop - inability to lift or extend hand at wrist indicates damage to what nerve?
Femoral Nerve
Inability to extend leg and flex hip indicates damage to what nerve?
Phrenic Nerve
this motor nerve supplies the respiratory muscles. Stimulates diaphragm to contract. Damage shows impaired breathing.
Phrenic Nerve
Damage indicating impaired breathing shows damage to what nerve?
Tibial Nerve
this nerve serves muscles of posterior area of leg and foot. Damage shows shuffling gait due to inability to invert and dorsiflex the foot.
Tibial Nerve
Damage indicating shufling gait due to inability to invert and dorsiflex foot relates to what nerve?
Median Nerve
This nerve serves muscles of forearm and some muscles of the hand. Damage shows inability to pick up small objects.
Median Nerve
Inability to pick up small objects shows damage to what nerve?
Common Peroneal Nerve
Nerve controls lateral area of leg and foot. Damage is called footdrop, the inability to dorsiflex foot.
Common Peroneal Nerve
Footdrop, inability to dorsiflex foot indicates damage to what nerve?
Intercostal Nerve
Nerve that serves muscles of rib cage. Damage will impair breathing
Intercostal nerve
Impaired breathing shows damage to what nerve?
Pudendal nerve
a somatic nerve in pelvic region that innervates external genitalia of both sexes, as well as sphincters for bladder and rectum is what nerve?
Curare Drugs
Muscle relaxant that blocks the nicotinic acetycholine receptor. Leads to asphyxiation as the respiratory muscles are unable to contract. Can also cause profound fall in blood pressure.
Anosmia
Damage to CN-1 Olfactory nerve. Loss of sense of smell and loss of taste is called what (word)?
Olfactory Nerve
Loss of sense of small (Anosmia) and loss of taste is result of damage to this nerve
Bell's Palsy
Side of face droops & drools. Responds to Steroid Therapy.
Dopamanine
Parkins's disease produces dry eyes because of lack of this neurotransmitter
Weak Blink
Damage to the CN-III Oculomotor Nerve will cause a what?
Ototoxic Drug
This type of drug will cause partial or profound hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus. It affects the Vesitbulocochlear Nerve.
Ototoxicity
A common cause of hearing loss, partial or profound, vertigo and tinnitus due to a drug
Brachial Plexus
This supplies nerves to the muscles of the skin of shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist & hand. Nerves include: Axillary, Radial, and Ulna.
Cervicle Plexus
fibers that supply muscles of skin and neck. Motor fibers also pass into the phrenic nerve here. This stimulates the phrenic nerve for contraction of diaphram.
Lumbrosacral Plexus
gives rise to nerves that suply muscles and skin of lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, buttocks and lower extremities. Sciatic nerve arises here.
3 Plexus
Brachial, Cervicle and Lumbrosacral
Olfactory
Smell
Optic
Sight
Oculomotor
Eyeball, eyelid, pupil
Trochlear
Eyeball movement
Trigeminal
Chey, sensation, face, cornea, teeth
Abducens
Eye lateral move
Facial
smile, saliva, tears, blink
Vesitbulocochlear
hering, balance
Glossopharyngeal
Swallow, taste, gag, BP
Vagus
Visceral Muscle
Accessory
Swallow, head & shoulder, speak
Hypoglossal
Speech, swallow