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White Matter

Myelinated fibers, mostly axons, that are located in the Central Nervous System

Spinal Nerve

Nerve that arises from the spinal cord

Sensory Nerve

Collection of sensory neurons that carry information toward the central nervous system

Reflex Arc

A nerve pathway that includes a receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron and effector organ


Network of spina nerves that exit at vertebal column and divide into many fibers. Points where fibers converge are called a:

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerves and ganglia that lie outside the central nervous system

Nerve Tract

Group of neurons that share a common function within the central nervous system; may be ascending (sensory) or descending (motor)

Mixed Nerve

Nerve that contains both sensory and motor fibers

Gray Matter CNS

Part of the central nervous system that is composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

Efferent neuron

A motor neuron; brings information from the CNS to the periphery

Crainial Nerve

The 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain

Afferent Neuron

Carrying toward a center, such as (this type of) a nerve carrying information toward the CNS

Epidural Anethesia Injection

Injected into dural membrane to deaden the lower pelvic region

Spinal anethesia Injection

Puncture between L-3 & L-4 (hip level) into subarachnoid space, deadens lumbar and sacral sensory nerves

Lumbar Puncture

Puncture between L-3 & L-4 into subarachnoid space usually for spinal tap

Between L-3 & L-4

Where do you inject for a lumbar puncture (between which vertebrae)

Subarachnoid space

Where do you inject for a lumbar puncture (what space)

Spinal Cord Major functions

Sensory & motor pathways & reflex center

Crutch Palsy

Damages axillary nerves because of weight of body in armpit

Gag Reflex

aka Pharyngeal reflex. Controlled by CN-II Glossopharyngeal nerve

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

What nerve is associated with the Gag Reflex

Fixed & Dilated eyes

Damage to CNIII oculomotor nerve will cause this, sometimes due to brain tumors or increased intracranial pressure

Oculomotor Nerve

Fixed & Dilated eyes, sometimes due to brain tumors or increased intracranial pressure. Damage to what nerve causes this

Baroreceptor Reflex

Receptor (reflex) that detects or senses change in blood pressure

Glossopharyngeal & Vegus

What cranial nerve(s) is (are) related to the Baroreceptor Reflex

Pharyngeal Reflex

Gag Reflex is also known as

Gag Reflex

Prevents something from entering the throat or airway and helps prevent choking


Automatic response (nervous or chemical) to a stimulus. Controlled by the spinal cord


Ability to walk & maintain balance requires hundreds of this type of movement

Ankle-jerk reflex

Stretch reflex, when mallet srikes Achilles tendon, causing plantar flexion

Lower spinal cord (L-5 to S-2)

When doing the Ankle-Jerk reflex we are testing what part of the spinal cord

Pupillary Reflex

Reflex that regulates amount of light that enters the eye

Organ Reflex

Reflex that helps regulate organ function

Withdrawal Reflex

Reflex that protects you from injury

Corneal Reflex

aka Blink Reflex. Involuntry blinking of the eyelids

Trigeminal Nerve

The Corneal reflex is related to what cranial nerve?

Reflex Arc Process

Receptor stimulated, Sensory neuron carries impulse to spinal cord, Motor neuron carries impulse back to muscle, Effector organ contracts muscles in response to impulse

Babinski Reflex

Striking lateral sole of foot in direction of heel to toe with hard blund object. Curling toes good. Dorsiflexion of big toe bad. Indicates damage or lesions in spinal cord

Knee-Jerk Reflex

AKA Patellar Reflex. Stretch reflex, the mallet strikes the patellar tendon below the knee in response the lower leg kicks up.

Knee-Jerk reflex

Reflex test used to check for impairement or damage to lumbar region of spinal cord or femoral nerve

Corticospinal Tract

Ascending tract. AKA Pyramidal tract. Innervates right site of body. Responsible for skeletal muscle tone and voluntary muscle movement

Spinothalamic Tract

Ascending tract. Carries sensory information for touch, pressure & pain from spinal cord to thalamus in brain

Ascending tracts

spinothalamic, Dorsal column and Spinocerebellar tracts are:

Decending Tracts

Pyramidal & extrapyramidal tracts are:

Extrapyramidal tract

Decending tract responsible for skeletal muscle activity such as balance and posuture

Nerve Tract

Group of neurons that share a common function within the central nervous system; may be ascending (sensory) or descending (motor)

Nerve Tract

White matter in spinal cord is composed of mylinated axons. These neuronal axons are grouped together into what?

Trigeminal Neuralgia

aka Tic Doulourex. bouts of facial pain from eating, shaving & exposure to cold


Area of body supplied by a spinal nerve. The distribution of nerves innervating a particular area of skin.


If skin of a region is stimulated with tip of a pin and person cannot feel it, there is probably damage to distribution of nerves called:

Basal Nuclei

aka Basal Gangli. Patches of gray matter scattered throughout the cerebral matter. Helps regulate body movement and facial expression. Neurotrasmitter dopamine largely responsible for activity.

Basal Nuclei

Neurotransmitter dopamine is largely responsible for activity in this nuclei

Parkinson's Disease

Deficiency of dopamine within the basal nuclei (which regulates body movement and facial expression) is present in this disease

Cortical Blindness

Damage to the occipital lobe will result in this.

Phases of Action Potential

Polarization - resting, Depolarization -stimulated, Refractory Period & repolarization -resting state again.

Refractory Period

Period during which nervous tissue cannot respond to a second stimulus

Broca's Area

usually located in left hemisphere (frontal lobe). For formation of words, movements of mouth & toungue.

Frontal Eye Field

Located in frontal lobe, usually L hemisphere. Controls voluntary movement of eyes and eyelids. Ability to scan a page.

Corpus Callosum

Bands of white matter that form a large fiber tract that join the cerebral hemispheres. Allows right and left sides of the brain to communicated with each other.


Natural morphine-like substances produced by the brain which bind to opiate receptors in CNS, moderating pain, relieving anxiety & producing sense of well being. Endogenous morphine & enkaphalins.

Brain Stem

Lower part of the brain that connects the brain with the spinal cord. Consists of Midbrain, Pons & Medulla Oblongata

Medula Oblongata

Extremely sensitive to certain drugs, especially narcotics (opioids). Overdose of a narcotic causes depression of this organ and thus death because the person stops breathing

Medula Oblongata

aka Vital Center. Part of brain stem that controls vital functions such as respiratory & cardiovascular function. Relay for sensory & motor info for heart rate, blood pressure & respiration.


Enzyme that desroys Acetycholine in NMJ near the muscle membrane of a dendrite

Function of Cranial Nerves

Sensory info for smell, taste, vision & hearing, touch, pressure, pain, temp & vibration. Motor info that results in contraction of skeletal muscles, secretion of glands & contractions of cardia & smooth muscle

Cranial Nerves

Nerves designated by Roman numerals and name. Numerals indicate order in which nerves exit brain front to back. Name indicates area served by the nerve. These nerves are called what?

Hypoglossal Nerve

CN-XII is primarily motor nerve. Controls movement of tongue, affecting speaking & swallowing. Damage causes tongue to deviate toward the injured site.

Hypoglossal Nerve

Damage causes tongue to deviate toward injured site relates to what nerve?

Accessory Nerve

N-XI is primarily motor nerve. Supplies sterncleidomastoid & trapezius muscles for movement of head & shoulders. Damage impairs ability to shrug shoulders

Accessory Nerve

Damage impairing ability to shrug shoulders relates to what nerve?

Vagus Nerve

CN-X is Mixed nerve. Innervates tongue, pharynx, larynx, many organs in thoracic & abdominal cavities, lungs, stomach & instestines. Also helps control blood pressure.

Vagus Nerve

Damage causing hoarseness or loss of voice, impaired swallowing, diminished motility of digestive tract, damage to both of both of these nerves can be Fatal, relates to what nerve?

Glossopharygeal Nerve

CN-IX is mixed nerve. Sensory carries taste from tongue. Motor stimulates secretion of salivary glands and innervates throat & aids in swalling. Gag Reflex & blood pressure. Damage results in loss of gag reflex and places you at risk for choking.

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Loss of gag reflex placing you at risk for choking relates to what nerve?

Vestibolochochlear Nerve

CN-VIII is sensory nerve that carries info for hearing & balance from inner ear to brain. Equilibrium & balance & hearing. Damage causes loss of hearing, balance or both

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

Loss of hearing, balance or both is related to what nerve?

Facial Nerve

CN-VII is mixed nerve, mostly motor functions. allows to smile, frown & make other faces. Stimulates saliva & tears & blinking, keeps cornea moist. Also taste. Damage to this area shows expression absent from one side. Bell's Palsy

Facial Nerve

Expression absent from one side, called Bell's Palsy is related to what nerve?

Abducens Nerve

CN-VI is primarily motor nerve that controls eye movement by innervating only 1 extrinsic eye muscle. Damage prevents lateral rotation of eye. Eyes drift medially (toward the nose)

Abducens Nerve

Damage prevents lateral rotation of eye. eyes drift medially (toward nose). What nerve is related to this?

Trigeminal Nerve

CN-IV, mixed nerve w/3 branches supplying facial region. Sensory info for touch, pressure and pain from face, scalp, eyes & teeth. Also Opthalmic branch detects sensory info from cornea so we blink & secrete tears. Motor branch innervates muscles of mastication. Damage is loss of sensation & impaired movement of the mandible & facial pain

Trigeminal nerve

Loss of sensation & impaired movement of the mandible & facial pain is related to what nerve?

Trochlear Nerve

CN-IV is motor nerve Innervates one of the extrinsic muscles of eyeball, helping move eyeball. Damage is double vision and inability to rotate eye properly.

Trochlear Nerve

Damage causing double vision and or inability to rotate eye properly relates to what nerve?

Oculomoter Nerve

CNIII is motor nerve that causes contraction of extrinsic eye muscles. Moves eyeball in socket, raises eyelid & constricts puple. Compression intereferes w/ability to respond to light, pupils become fixed & dilated and ptosis of eyelid. Tumors or crainial pressure

Oculomotor Nerve

Compression interfering with ability to respond to light and sluggish response of the pupils, along with fixed & dilated pupils and ptosis of eyelid relate to what nerve?

Optic Nerve

CN-II Visual information from eye to brain (occipital lobe). Damage shows diminished vision or blindness in affected eye.

Optic Nerve

Damage showing diminished vision or blindness in the affected eye relates to what nerve?

Olfactory Nerve

CN-1 Carries infromation from nose to brain. Concerned with sense of smell. Damage shows loss of sense of smell (anosmia) and loss of taste

Olfactory Nerve

Damage showing loss of sense of smell (anosmia) and loss of taste relate to what nerve?


Spinal cord severed in lumbar region leaving a person paralyzed from the waist down is called


Spinal cord severed at the neck region (cervical are) leaving the trunk and all four extermities paralizyed is called

Pudendal Nerve

Nerve that innervates the penis & clitoris and areas around the scrotum, perineum & anus. A nerve block is done in this area during labor.

PNS Nerves

Phrenic, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar, Intercostal, Femoral, Sciatic, Common Peroneal & Tibial nerves are

Axillary Nerve

Controls muscles of the shoulder. Nerve emerges from Brachial Plexus and travels through shoulder into arm. Damage called Cruth Palsy

Axillary Nerve

Crutch Palsy causes damage to what nerve?

Unlar Nerve

Nerve serves muscles of wrist and many muscles in the hand. Damage is called Clawhand, inability to spread fingers apart.

Ulnar Nerve

Clawhand, inability to spread fingers apart shows damage to what nerve?

Sciatic Nerve

Nerve serves muscles of lower trunk and posterior thigh and leg. Longest nerve in the body. Damage causes inability to extend leg and flex knee.

Sciatic Nerve

Damage to this nerve causes inability to extend leg and flex knee.

Femoral Nerve

Nerve serves muscles of lower abdomen, anterior thigh & medial leg & foot. Damage causes inability to extend leg and flex hip.

Radial Nerve

Nerve serves muscles of posterior arm, forearm, hand, thumbs and first two fingers. Damage is called wristdrop (inability to lift or extend hand at wrist).

Radial Nerve

Wristdrop - inability to lift or extend hand at wrist indicates damage to what nerve?

Femoral Nerve

Inability to extend leg and flex hip indicates damage to what nerve?

Phrenic Nerve

this motor nerve supplies the respiratory muscles. Stimulates diaphragm to contract. Damage shows impaired breathing.

Phrenic Nerve

Damage indicating impaired breathing shows damage to what nerve?

Tibial Nerve

this nerve serves muscles of posterior area of leg and foot. Damage shows shuffling gait due to inability to invert and dorsiflex the foot.

Tibial Nerve

Damage indicating shufling gait due to inability to invert and dorsiflex foot relates to what nerve?

Median Nerve

This nerve serves muscles of forearm and some muscles of the hand. Damage shows inability to pick up small objects.

Median Nerve

Inability to pick up small objects shows damage to what nerve?

Common Peroneal Nerve

Nerve controls lateral area of leg and foot. Damage is called footdrop, the inability to dorsiflex foot.

Common Peroneal Nerve

Footdrop, inability to dorsiflex foot indicates damage to what nerve?

Intercostal Nerve

Nerve that serves muscles of rib cage. Damage will impair breathing

Intercostal nerve

Impaired breathing shows damage to what nerve?

Pudendal nerve

a somatic nerve in pelvic region that innervates external genitalia of both sexes, as well as sphincters for bladder and rectum is what nerve?

Curare Drugs

Muscle relaxant that blocks the nicotinic acetycholine receptor. Leads to asphyxiation as the respiratory muscles are unable to contract. Can also cause profound fall in blood pressure.


Damage to CN-1 Olfactory nerve. Loss of sense of smell and loss of taste is called what (word)?

Olfactory Nerve

Loss of sense of small (Anosmia) and loss of taste is result of damage to this nerve

Bell's Palsy

Side of face droops & drools. Responds to Steroid Therapy.


Parkins's disease produces dry eyes because of lack of this neurotransmitter

Weak Blink

Damage to the CN-III Oculomotor Nerve will cause a what?

Ototoxic Drug

This type of drug will cause partial or profound hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus. It affects the Vesitbulocochlear Nerve.


A common cause of hearing loss, partial or profound, vertigo and tinnitus due to a drug

Brachial Plexus

This supplies nerves to the muscles of the skin of shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist & hand. Nerves include: Axillary, Radial, and Ulna.

Cervicle Plexus

fibers that supply muscles of skin and neck. Motor fibers also pass into the phrenic nerve here. This stimulates the phrenic nerve for contraction of diaphram.

Lumbrosacral Plexus

gives rise to nerves that suply muscles and skin of lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, buttocks and lower extremities. Sciatic nerve arises here.

3 Plexus

Brachial, Cervicle and Lumbrosacral






Eyeball, eyelid, pupil


Eyeball movement


Chey, sensation, face, cornea, teeth


Eye lateral move


smile, saliva, tears, blink


hering, balance


Swallow, taste, gag, BP


Visceral Muscle


Swallow, head & shoulder, speak


Speech, swallow

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