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47 terms

Human Ecology exam 1-ch4

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When an increase in the population of prey occurs, which of the following usually occurs in the population of its predator?
The population of the predator increases.
When a species is moved from its native area to a new area, it can become an invasive species and damage its new ecosystem. What is one reason these species are able to damage an ecosystem?
When a species is transported, it leaves behind its predators and the diseases that previously kept its population in check. Therefore the species is able to grow to large and damaging numbers.
If two members of the same bird species are competing for the same tree to build a nest in, this is considered_____.
intraspecific competition
Many plants have developed complicated defenses to protect themselves against _____.
herbivory
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
producers
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
detritivore
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
secondary consumer
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
primary consumer
A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.
tertiary consumer
_____ are secondary consumers.
Carnivores
Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level.
5-10
10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer.
10
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be:
lichens and mosses
Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession?
plants have wind-dispersed seeds
As organisms prey on one another, ______ and _____ move through the community from one trophic level to the next tropic level at a rate of 10%.
matter and energy
Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?
A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.
The most accurate way to represent trophic levels in a food chain graphically would be as ____________.
a pyramid of energy
Ecological restoration tries to _____.
return ecosystems to a more "natural" state, often what they were like before industrial civilization altered them
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
desert
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
coniferous forest
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
tundra
The changes to the cuttlefish's skin are related to _______.
camouflage
Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish's survival by enabling it to _______.
hide from predators
Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______.
disruptive camouflage
In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______.
move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes
Which question was raised but not answered in the video?
How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind?
Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection?
Cook it thoroughly.
Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following?
feces
Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes?
snails
Pla som is a unique dish because it is what?
fermented
You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer?
1-5%
You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them?
The northeastern part of the country.
Tilapia were originally native to what?
lakes
You go to the grocery store and buy frozen tilapia. Where is it most likely from?
China
Concentration of which of the following would be of most concern in areas where tilapia are farmed?
oxygen and phosphorus
Which of the following is true regarding tilapia farms?
They use testosterone but not prophylactic antibiotics.
You wish to increase your consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. Which of the following would be best to choose?
salmon
If a tilapia farmer wants to increase omega-3 fatty acids in his fish, what should he feed them?
aquatic plants
Zebra mussels ________.
are an invasive exotic species that clogs water intake pipes at factories, power plants, and wastewater treatment facilities
Many moths, beetles and flies closely resemble bees and wasps but cannot sting. This is ________.
mimicry
Grazing animals such as deer are ________.
primary consumers or herbivores
Which terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity?
tropical rainforest
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a(n) ________ association.
symbiotic
Read the following scenario and answer the question(s) below

Human activities, including fossil fuel combustion, farming, and deforestation, are known to increase the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in our atmosphere. Measurable warming of Earth due to these greenhouse gases can alter ecosystem dynamics. In addition to the direct climatic effects on organisms within biomes, warming can lower levels of sea ice and increase precipitation in Arctic areas. Global warming also can increases sea surface temperatures, which can subsequently melt permafrost in the tundra and increase the intensity of hurricanes in vulnerable areas. Within communities, climatic change can shift interdependent species "out-of-sync," potentially causing indirect loss of species.


Intense hurricanes that may result from global warming can directly lead to ________ within impacted terrestrial communities.
secondary succession