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Arts and Humanities
Leadership exam 2
Terms in this set (44)
key elements of motivation
Intensity: how hard a person tries
Direction: toward beneficial goal
Persistence: how long a person tries
3 major types of motivation theories
Content Theories of Motivation
WHAT motivates us
Process Theories of Motivation
WHY and HOW motivation occurs
HOW outcomes influence behaviors
Alderfer's ERG Theory - A Content Perspective
How one individual relates to his/her social environment
Achievement and self actualization
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.
Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
-Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
-Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction.
Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.
-Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance.
The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
McClelland's Needs Theory
There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work.
Need for achievement (nAch)
The drive to excel and succeed
Need for power (nPow)
The need to influence the behavior of others
Need of affiliation (nAff)
The desire for interpersonal relationships
Goal-Setting Theory- A Process Perspective
Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance.
Difficulty - Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort.
Specificity - Clarity and precision of the goal.
Goal Achievement Depends on:
Acceptance - extent to which person accepts a goal as their own.
Commitment - Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.
Equity Theory: A Process Perspective
Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and compare it to other people.
Expectancy TheoryThe Basic Idea
People tend to prefer certain goals, or outcomes, over others.
They anticipate experiencing feelings of satisfaction should such a preferred outcome be achieved.
Basically, people are motivated to behave in ways that produce valued outcomes.
Rewards that you want and that you believe you have a decent chance of obtaining.
Expectancy Theory -A Process Perspective
Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it
-Effort to Performance Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to performance.
-Performance to Outcome Expectancy (I) is the perception that performance leads to an outcome.
-Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance.
-Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome is valued.
M = E x I x V
For motivated behavior to occur:
Effort-to-performance must be greater than 0
Performance-to-outcome must be greater than 0
Sum of valences must be greater than 0*
Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Behavior is environmentally caused.
Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.
Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
-The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task.
-Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated.
-Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual.
-The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades.
-These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide.
-Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task. It just means that the pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest
Ken Thomas's Model of Intrinsic Motivation
Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from:
Choice- the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities.
Competence- the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities.
Meaningfulness- pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things.
Progress- the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task's purpose.
Job design theory
Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
The individual's obligation to be faithful to commitments made to self & others
In health care, includes the professional's faithfulness or loyalty to agreements & responsibilities accepted as part of the practice of the profession
Affordability care act
(Obama Care - when called this it has a 8% lower approval rating)
Uninsurance rates are low
Health status improving
ER visits decreased
Hospital stays decreased
Access (can you find a doctor when you need it)
Total Patient Care Hours/365 = Daily Hours of Care
Total FTE Budget:
Used to allocate core staff to units
Allocates staff to cover 24/7, vacation, sick, FMLA
Daily FTE Needs:
Used to develop basic staffing pattern
Divided by shifts
Divided by skill mix
Equals core staffing pattern
Staff members assigned to complete specific tasks for a group of patients
Evolved during World War II as a result of a nursing shortage
Unskilled workers trained to perform routine, simple tasks
Common use area—operating room
Modification of team nursing
Patient unit is divided into modules or units with an RN as team leader
The same team of caregivers is assigned consistently to the same geographic area
Concept evolved to increase RN involvement in care
RN "primary nurse" assumes 24-hour responsibility for planning, directing, and evaluating care
Common use areas—hospice, home health, and
long-term care settings
specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, knowledge and wisdom in nursing practice.
IOM's Six Aims for Improvement
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) mission is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all Americans. Information from AHRQ's research helps people make more informed decisions and improve the quality of health care services. AHRQ was formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
Mission: To continuously improve health care for the public, in collaboration with other stakeholders, by evaluating health care organizations and inspiring them to excel in providing safe and effective care of the highest quality and value.
Vision Statement: All people always experience the safest, highest quality, best-value health care across all settings.
-Group of very large US companies
-Mission is to stimulate improvement in quality, customer service and affordability
-Recognizes and rewards health care organizations that implement evidence-based patient safety measures
-Encourages members to buy health care from these organizations
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI)
Mission: is "driving the improvement in health by advancing the quality and value of health care"
Benefits of Magnet Designation:
Attract and retain top talent
Improve patient care, safety and satisfaction
Foster a collaborative culture
Advance nursing standards and practice
Grow your business and financial success
A philosophy that certain health decisions (e.g.,
whether to undergo heroic surgery,
appropriateness of care in terminally ill
patients) are best left in the hands of those
Review plan for advanced care when any of 5 D's occur
Review your plan when any of the "Five D's" occur:
Decade - when you start each new decade of your life.
Death - when you experience the death of a loved one.
Divorce - when you experience a divorce or major family change.
Diagnosis - when you are diagnosed with a serious health condition.
Decline - when an illness leads to a change in your functional abilities
A physician order recognized throughout the medical system.
Portable document that transfers with the patient.
Brightly colored, standardized form for entire state of CA.
Most but not all hospitals and clinics are owned by the government
Specialists employed by government
General practitioners private but collect fees from government
Government as sole payer control what doctors can do and what they can charge.
No premium, not copay, not doctor bill
It uses an insurance system that is financed jointly by employers and employees through payroll deduction.
Health insurance plans have to cover everybody and they do not make a PROFIT.
Doctors and hospitals tend to be private
Tight government regulation
National Health Insurance Model
Hybrid of both the Beveridge and Bismarck.
Utilizes private-sector providers and hospitals but payment comes from a government-run insurance program that every citizen pays into.
Single payer power to control costs
Also called legitimate power, refers to power of an individual because of the relative position within an organization.
It is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position.
Legitimate Power: the lawful right to make decision and expect compliance is called legitimate power
Reward Power: the authority to give employees rewards for compliance is referred to as reward power.
Coercive Power: the power to punish for noncompliance; it is based on fear.
Information Power: the power stemming from formal control over the information people need to do their work.
Expert power (personal power)
Expert Power is the ability to influence others through specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities.
-It is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise.
-Unlike the others, this type of power is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained and qualified.
the ability to influence others through desirable traits and characteristics.
It means the power to ability of individuals to attract others and build loyalty. It's based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder.
Prestige Power stems from one's status and reputation. A manager who has accumulated important business successes acquires prestige power.
Health Maintenance Organizations
-Type of organization that includes several hospitals, physicians and insurance plans that work together to offer services under similar rules and regulations.
-As a member of an HMO, you pay monthly premiums and the HMO offers you the medical services you and your family might need, such as doctor visits, emergency care, hospital stays, surgery, x-rays, laboratory tests and therapy.
-choices of doctors and hospitals are limited to those providers who have agreements with the HMO, and sometimes you might even get assigned to a specific doctor and hospital.
Preferred Provider Organization
-Organization that consists of a network of physicians and hospitals. For this reason, your choices of medical care, such as a doctor, are limited.
- can choose an outside provider, but your benefits in this case will be lower, and you will have to pay more from your pocket. PPO providers use member cards to identify their clients, and that is all you need to present when you go to see a doctor.
-Though PPOs cover the bulk of the costs, they may ask you to make a small co-payment and deductible for your visit. The basic coverage of a PPO is preventive care such as doctor visits and baby care. However, other coverages will depend on which PPO you choose to join.
A Point-of-Service plan
-Organization that unites characteristics of an HMO and a PPO.
-composed of different providers who offer health care solutions at lower prices. choice of providers is somewhat limited, though, since you must choose from a list that your POS gives to you.
-if you have the need for a specialist, you can see out-of-network providers. You do not need to worry about paperwork when visiting POS network providers, but when you visit out-of-network providers, you need to submit claims to your POS company yourself.
-POS plans focus on health prevention and education, but other services are also offered, depending on the type of plan you choose.
A Mission Statement defines the organization's purpose and primary objectives. Its prime function is internal - to define the key measure or measures of the organization's success - and its prime audience is the leadership team and stockholders.
Vision Statements also define the organizations purpose, but this time they do so in terms of the organization's values rather than bottom line measures (values are guiding beliefs about how things should be done.)
For employees, it gives direction about how they are expected to behave and inspires them to give their best.
Span of control
A span of control is the number of people who report to one manager in a hierarchy. The more people under the control of one manager - the wider the span of control. Less means a narrower span of control.
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