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history 1720 final terms

Terms in this set (68)

Caesar, Pompey and Crassus
Caesar and Pompey:
-have a huge military rivalry
-in the early years, Pompey is more successful and worries the senate more than Caesar does, so the senate tries to reign Pompey in
-so he turns to Caesar and Crassus to form an alliance and say they should be in charge of the senate
-Crassus gets a military campaign and is executed, so Pompey and Caesar left
-Caesar begins having more success on the battlefield and becoming more popular, so senate begins to worry about Caesar
-so they call him back to Rome
-Caesar starts coming back to Rome and does something illegal
-soldiers are supposed to be citizens when they come back from war, so when they came to Rubicon River, instead of disbanding his troops, Caesar crossed the river with the soldiers still under his control
-he says "the die is cast" and makes a statement going back to Rome with an army and ready to take charge
-Caesar is marching on Rome and Pompey does not have his soldiers so he flees to Egypt where he is assassinated
-Caesar doesn't know Pompey is dead, so he pursues him to Egypt
-Caesar gets caught up in affair with Cleopatra and eventually returns to Rome to finish what he started
-he has a triumph when he gets back
-triumpth includes a slave that stood behind the general reminding him he was just a mortal because the Romans were worried the triumph would go to their heads
-Caesar convinces the senate to appoint him dictator not for 6 months but 10 years and before that expires, he is appointed dictator for life
-he appointed himself the chief religious leader of Rome
-he isn't calling himself king, but thats basically it
order of St. Francis of Assisi
-popular new saint
-really good example of a regular person living in Italy who wants to have a more spiritual life
-he was involved with lots of trade and manufacturing- expected to go into the family business; father is a pretty wealthy merchant
-regular man in the city but began to be more spiritual; underwent conversion
-starts going around his community and preaching the word of God
-not worried about things; not concerned with his appearance; begins to live in rags because he gave his clothes to the poor
-but social status is important, as well as looking the part, so this angered his father
-his father tells him to take off the rags; he takes off all his clothes in the middle of the marketplace
-he and his father have different ideas of how to live--> takes a public stand against his father
-becomes well known to religious people in the area--> others decide they want to live like Francis too
-the way he lives is an imitation of Jesus; wants to help the poor and sick and preach to the people of Italy
-later comes in contact with people who are angry this person who is a nobody is making a difference as a preacher
-Pope Innocent III dreams that St. Francis will strengthen the church--> decides he is the person to do this; likes the idea of having him and his followers going around and preaching, not to go into monastery but to go get regular people to change their paths to christian prayer and charity
-Francis gets permission to go preach; also given to those who Francis accepts as his followers
-this becomes the Franciscan Order
-famous war of western culture; consistently famous
-takes up the story of the myth at its midpoint
-->story of Achilles begins at his parents' marriage (his mother was a demigod) only Eris (discord) was not invited to the wedding
-Eris wants revenge, writes a note in apple and leaves it at the wedding for the "fairest"
-sounds like snow white and sleeping beauty
-mother bathes Achilles in protection of river by foot, so his heel is the only part not protected
-Athena, Aphrodite and Hera want to be named the "fairest" of the goddesses at the wedding
-Zeus tells Paris (prince) to make decision and chooses Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty)
-she promises to give him the most beautiful women
-Paris is Prince of Troy, and Helen "of Troy" is currently married to a man in Greece
-Paris and Helen end up together, she goes to Troy
-the Greeks are not happy to lose Helen
-she is "the face that launched a thousand ships"
-Greeks are angry, they go to get her back
-they land on the beach for 9 years and cannot get into the fortified city
-in the Iliad, it becomes "Greeks vs Greeks" rather than Greeks vs Trojans (leads to the overall theme of anger)
-Agamemnon takes Achilles girl, and Achilles doesn't prevent it, simply withdraws from battle
-Achilles best friend is killed by Hector (possibly gay) and Achilles is devastated, brings out his anger in a different way- goes to fight battle for revenge
-Hector is the brother of Paris, presented as a noble man/ one of the heroes of the story
-Iliad ends after funeral of Hector-- this is the story of the Trojan war
-reformer (to reform christian belief
--was a monk who later abandoned his vow of celibacy and got married
--argued against the selling of indulgences in his Ninety Five Thesis
-he and other begin to say indulgences have gone too far
-the more he thinks about it, the more he thinks it is wrong; nice people should go straight to heaven; all you have to do is have faith
-but the indulgences kickstart things-
-he was the son of a merchant; was not interested in this lifestyle; was sent to law school but dropped out and joined a monastery and learned about theology
-sent off for more university training, got degrees and was asked to stay to teach at the university--this is where he starts questioning indulgences and what is going on in the church
-big difference between repentance and penance- not doing external things to make up for sins, but internal idea of penance for contrition
-believes anyone who is a Christian should have the same access to religious texts that priests have
-takes a stand; that he, a christian in the west, does not need to do
-burns the letter in front of many people; speaks o the audience saying they should not be subordinate to the Italians and the people in Italy who have authority in the church
-in response, the pope sends a mission to the local individual in charge of Martin Luther's region (Frederick) ; prince within the Holy Roman Empire and pope says he needs to put a stop to Martin Luther
-he asks Martin Luther and other princes to assemble (including Charles V-hapsberg, king of Spain, holy roman emperor and leader of other many territories too)
-Charles V also decided to come down on Martin Luther
-there is concern that Martin Luther
if Martin Luther is successful at challenging the religious hierarchy, then the princes might try to challenge the political monarchy as well
-Frederick encourages ML to leave before he can be captured and imprisoned for heresy
-the printing press helps ML's ideas to spread to lots of people very quickly
-some peasants hear of what Luther has to say; the peasants have this idea that if we get rid of the priestly hierarchy, then they can challenge the political hierarchy -- a number of peasants rise up at this point, leads to Peasant's War in 1525
-Luther says peasants have to obey their lord; comes down to the side of the princes, maybe because he wants them to support his religious views
-princes would have to support Luther in order to make reformations
-peasant rebellion is ended
-"Catholicism and the hierarchy need to stand ___"
-by supporting his, they become known as the Protestants (Protestant Reform)