AP World History Unit 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (81)
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Second Treatise of Civil Government
Written by John Locke
John- Jacques Rousseau
English Enlightenment philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain
the revolution in France against the Bourbons
Locke's written; King Louis wrote
imaginary or visionary theorization
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Otto Von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services.
the power source that made it possible to build factories away from running water
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices
Unions of independent businesses in order to regulate production, prices, and the marketing of goods
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole; create the same profit, everybody is equal
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes; basis of communism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Father of communism; wrote Communist Manifesto
Carnagie; more of a monopoly; controls everything from the ground up
Controls the distribution; trust, Rockefeller
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state
palace that show cased the inoventions and technology; located in Europe
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
persons who believe that people can live at peace with each other if they live in small cooperative settlements, owning all of the means of production in common and sharing the products
Cotton; increased industrializatiion
Japaneese corporations; like trusts but not monopolies
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Mexican- American War
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended with Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Helped unite the union. Each community operated on its own time. 1870, Professor C.F. Dowd proposed that the Earth's surface be divided into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. U.S. contained 4 zones. Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific.
Canadian Nation Policy
Canada would fend for itself
Bands of mounted rural workers in the region of the Rio de la Plata; aided local caudillos in splitting apart the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after 1816; cowboys
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
The purchase of French land between the Missippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US
They consist of descendants of marriages of Woodland Cree, Ojibway, Saulteaux, and Menominee aboriginals to French Canadians, Scots and English.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
a liberal reform movement in 19th-century Mexico, led by Benito Juarez
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform
1725-89, Ottoman sultan (1774-89), brother and successor of Mustafa III. His reign, one of decline for the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), saw the end of the war of 1768-74 and the beginning of the war of 1787-91 with Catherine II of Russia
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
Local assemblies in Russia.
Count Sergie Witte
Russian minister of finance (1892-1903); economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investment in industry.
China angry at the British
China had the short end of the stick; British legalize Opium and control China with treaties in their favor
grown legally in British-occupied India and smuggled into China by means of fast ships and bribed officials, opium became a destructive and ensnaring vice of the Chinese.
The most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops; wanted no Opium
Self- Strengthening Movement
A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
Sphere of Influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
1867; The policy of Japan to reverse its isolation and replace the feudal rulers of the shogun and increase the power of the emperor
Hundred Days Reform
Qing attempted at comprehensive reform that said must move beyond self-strengthening movement and reform like Meiji did in Japan and create railways, banks and postal service
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs in India against the Brisith; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
The Berlin Conference
devised the ground rules for the European colonization of Africa
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Sino- Japanese War
A war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection set forth his theory of evolution
The Origin of Species
Darwins book; stated that evolution occoured by natural selection
a philisophical application of Darwin's theory of natural selection, states that some races or people are more fit for survival than others and are therefore designed by natue to dominate inferior races
Ram Maohan Roy
Spanish- American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
company rules over government