AP US History Period 4 (1800-1848)

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Federalist
Political party created in the 1790s led by Alexander Hamilton; favored a stronger national government; supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests
Democratic-Republicans
Political party created in the 1790's; led by Thomas Jefferson; favored limited government and state rights; supported primarily by the "common man"
Election of 1800
(AKA Revolution of 1800) election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republican Party
Hartford Convention, 1814
Meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 discuss strategy to gain more power in government; viewed as unpatriotic by many; as a result, the Federalist Party was no longer a significant force in American politics
Era of Good Feelings
Term used to describe the time period after the 2nd Party System in the United States after the Federalist Party fell from the national stage, leaving only the Democratic Party; associated with the presidency of James Monroe
Democrats
Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829; part of the 2nd Party System of the United States; supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government and individualism; drew its support from the "common Man"
Whig Party
Political Party created in 1834 as a coalition of anti-Jackson political leaders and dedicated to internal improvements funded by the national government
Andrew Jackson
Leader of the Democrats who became the seventh president of the US (1829-1837); known for his opposition to the 2nd Bank of the US, the Indian Removal Act, and opposition to nullification
Henry Clay
Leader of the Whig Party who proposed an "American System" to make the United States economically self-sufficient, mostly through protective tariffs; worked to keep the Union together through political compromise
Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)
After South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void, President Jackson obtained a Force Bill to use military actions against South Carolina; ended with a compromise to lower tariffs over an extended time; overall significance was the challenge of states to ignore federal law (later on with laws regarding slavery).
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery as a positive good and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which state could nullify federal law.
John Marshall
Appointed to the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801; served as a chief justice until 1835; legal decisions gave the Supreme Court more power, strengthened the federal government, and supported protection of private property.
Cotton Belt
Southern region in the US where most of the cotton is grown/deep; stretched from South Carolina to Georgia to the new states in the southwest frontier; had the highest concentration of slaves
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress
Market Economy
Economic system based on the unregulated buying and selling of goods and services; prices are determined by the forces of supply and demand
Embargo Act (1807)
Passed by President Jefferson in order to pressure Britain and France to stop impressment and support the American rights to free trade with the other; a government-order ban on international trade; went into effect in 1808 and closed down virtually all U.S. trade with foreign nations; led to steep depression in the economy
Panic of 1819
Financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the US tightened credit and recalled government loans after the price of cotton dropped
Second Bank of the United States (1816)
Privately owned bank that operated as both a commercial and fiscal agent for the US government; established in 1816 under a charter that was supposed to last 20 years; Andrew Jackson was critical of the bank and its potential for corruption; ended when Jackson vetoed the extension of its charter and won reelection in the process
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in US history; designed primarily to help America's textile industry
Tariff of Abominations 1828
Tariff with such high rates that it set off tension between northerners and southerners over tariff issues (called the Nullification Crisis)
Panic of 1837
Economic collapse caused primarily by President Jackson's destruction of the Second Bank of the United States
Slave Codes
Laws that established the status of slaves denying them basic rights and classifying them as the property of slaveholders
Second Great Awakening
An upsurge in religious activity that began around 1800 and was characterized by emotional revival meetings; led to several reform movements (temperance, abolition) designed to perfect society with religious morals
Charles Finney
Presbyterian minister who is credited and is known as the "Father of modern Revivalism"; advocated the abolition of slavery and equal education for women and African Americans
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Advocate of women right's, including the right to vote; organized (with Lucretia Mott) the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY
Dorothea Dix
Pioneer in the moment for special treatment for the mentally ill
Horace Mann
Massachusetts educator who called for publicly funded education for all children; called the "Father of Public Education in America"
Utopian Communities
Idealistic reform movement based on the belief that a perfect society could be created on Earth; significant Utopian experiments were established at New Harmony, Indiana, Book Farm, Massachusetts and the Oneida Community in New York; usually such attempts were short-lived
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical abolitionist in Massachusetts who published the liberator, an antislavery newspaper
Transcendentalism
Philosophical and literary movement that believed God existed within human being and nature; believed intuition was the highest source of knowledge; advocated for introspection by surrounding oneself with nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Philosopher, writer, and poet who became a central figure in the Transcendalist movement in American
Henry David Thoreau
Writer and naturalist; with Ralph Waldo Emerson, he was one of America's best known transcendentalists
Samuel Slater
Known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution"; brought British textile technology to the United States to create the first factory
John Deere
Invented the steel plow in 1837, which revolutionized farming; the steel plow broke up soil without the soil getting stuck to the plow
Lowell System
Method of factory management that evolved in the textile mills of Lowell, MA
Erie Canal (1817-1825)
350 mile canal built by the state of NY that stretched from Buffalo to Albany; the canal revolutionized shipping in NY and opened up new markets (evidence of the Market Revolution)
National Road (1811)
AKA Cumberland Road; first significant road built in the US at the expense of the federal government; stretched from the Potomac River to the Ohio River
Mason-Dixon Line
Boundary between PA and MD that marked the division between free and slave states before the Civil War
Cult of Domesticity
The belief that a woman's proper role in life was found in domestic pursuits (raising children, taking care of the house); strongly believed by many throughout the 19th century
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River
Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806)
Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
War Hawks
Members of Congress from the West and South elected in 1810 who wanted war with Britain in the hopes of annexing new territory and ending British trade with the Indians of the Northwest
War of 1812
1812-1815, War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the perceived British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas (impressment); ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war)
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be closed to further European colonization and that the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere; in return the U.S. pledged to stay out of European conflicts and affairs; significant foreign policy state that lasted through most of the 19th century
Oregon Treaty of 1846
After years of conflict over ownership of the Pacific Northwest, the U.S. and England established the boundary at 49° latitude, essentially splitting the Oregon Country down the middle
Manifest Destiny
Popular belief amongst early-19th century Americans that the U.S. was destined to expand across the North American continent, that this belief was obvious, and that God willed it to take place
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who attempted to establish an Indian confederacy among tribes from around the continent that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion; defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 by U.S. forces led by General William Henry Harrison, slowing the momentum of Pan-Indian unity
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Law that provided for the removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of Indian lands for white resettlement
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
A Supreme Court ruling that declared a state did not have the power to enforce laws on lands that were not under state jurisdiction; John Marshall wrote that the state of Georgia did not have the power to remove Indians; this ruling was largely ignored by President Andrew Jackson
Trail of Tears (1838)
Forced march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter; a large percentage of Cherokee died on the journey
The American System
Consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: (1) a tariff to protect and promote American industry; (2) a national bank to foster commerce; (3) federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture; supported heavily by Henry Clay
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, maintaining the balance between slave and free states in representation in the federal government; established a geographic line that would determine whether new states (made from the western territories) would be added to the union as slave or free states
Spoils System
Public offices given as a reward for political support. Most iconically used by Andrew Jackson after his first election, which then became a precedent for future federal leaders.
Marbury v. Madison (1803, Marshall)
The Court established its role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws, the principle is known as judicial review.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819, Marshall)
The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831, Marshall)
"The conditions of the Indians in relation to the United States is perhaps unlike that of any two people in existence," Chief Justice John Marshall wrote, "their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. . .(they were a) domestic dependent nation." Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority.
tariff
A tax imposed on imported goods and services. Tariffs are used to restrict trade, as they increase the price of imported goods and services, making them more expensive to consumers.
embargo
A government order prohibiting commerce in or out of a port

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