US History Chapter 5-6 Vocab
Terms in this set (57)
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
a union of political organizations
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
American Revolutionary leader and signer of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution (1721-1793)
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units
the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
New England extremists who proposed secession and a separate peace with Britain during the War of 1812
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.
a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate)
nonparticipation in a dispute or war
Sent by France to the US to enlist American aid in the French revolution with or without the Washington administration's consent. He openly commissioned American privateers to harass British shipping and enlisted Americans in intrigues against the Spanish outpost of New Orleans. He also opened France's Caribbean colonies to American shipping, providing American shippers a choice between French free trade and British mercantilism.
American who negotiated a treaty with Spain that gave westerners the right to use the Mississippi River for shopments and awarded the disputed territory to the United States.
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
English naturalist; defined the terms Genus and species. Genus: a group of closely related organisms. Species: a group of organisms that are structurally similar and can pass these similarities on to their off-spring (capable of mating or breeding to produce fertile offspring).
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase
served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Judiciary Act of 1801
a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
native american woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
the act of coercing someone into government service
(n.) an order forbidding the trade in or movement of commercial goods; any restraint or hindrance; (v.) to forbid to enter or leave port; to forbid trade with
William Henry Harrison
9th president. Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe. Nominated as the Whig's presidential candidate for 1840. Proven vote getter. Military hero who expressed few opinions on national issues and had not political record to defend.
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
an advocate of an aggressive policy on foreign relations
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms