Henretta APUSH Chapter 29 DDH
Terms in this set (42)
Body of water between Iran and Iraq where a large percentage of the world's petroleum is shipped
Organizatio of Petroleum Exporting Countries/OPEC
A cartel formed in 1960 by the Persian Gulf states and other oil-rich developing countries, which allowed its members to exert greater control over the price of oil.
A period of fuel shortages in the United States after the Arab states in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) declared an oil embargo in October 1973. As a result, gas prices jumped by 40 percent and heating oil prices by 30 percent.
Yom Kippur War
1973 Arab-Israeli War that nearly triggered a conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Arab Oil Embargo
After 1973 Yom Kippur war, the Arab members of OPEC refused to sell oil to European allies of the United States as punishment for their support of Israel; gas rose from $3 to $12 a barrel. Economic shock of spike in energy prices helped trigger economic slump in western economies in mid-1970s.
Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring"
Naturalist and journalist Rachel Carson's 1960's attack on the U.S. chemical pesticide industry for their harmful use of DDT; regarded as important inspiration for Environmental Movement of Seventies.
burning Cuyahoga River
1969 fire on Cleveland's industrial Cuyahoga River became powerful symbol of our degraded and polluted environment
An annual environmental event that was first celebrated on April 22, 1970, when 20 million citizens gathered in communities across the country to express their support for a cleaner, healthier planet.
An activist movement begun in the 1960s concerned with protecting the environment through activities such as conservation, pollution-control measures, and public awareness campaigns. In response to the new environmental consciousness, the federal government staked out a broad role in environmental regulation in the 1960s and 1970s.
Environmental Protection Agency/EPA
A federal agency created by Congress and President Nixon in 1970 to enforce environmental laws, conduct environmental research, and reduce human health and environmental risks from pollutants.
Clean Air Act
Nixon's 1970 CAA act greatly expanded the federal governments (EPA) power to punish corporations for emitting excessive air pollutants into the atmosphere
Occupational Safety and Health Administration/OSHA
was passed by Democratic Congress and signed by Nixon was intended to protect worker safety and health on the job through governmental rules and inspections
Three Mile Island
Partial nuclear meltdown at plant near Harrisburg PA in 1979; no fatalities but possibility of one scared public away from further construction of nuclear power plants, formerly considered the nation's most likely future energy source in an age of volatile oil prices and global climate change
the long-lasting post WW II economic boom came to a halt in the 1970's as inflation robbed people of their purchasing power, high energy prices produced economic stagnation, along with the dramatic increase of high quality imported goods from Germany and Japan; many primary industrial plants closed and moved their operations overseas, where labor costs were cheaper.
An economic term coined in the 1970s to describe the condition in which inflation and unemployment rise at the same time.
The dismantling of manufacturing - especially in the automobile, steel, and consumer-goods industries - in the decades after World War II, representing a reversal of the process of industrialization that had dominated the American economy from the 1870s through the 1940s. Struck hardest by this were the nation's "Rust Belt" of manufacturing states, which stretched from the Northeast through the Great Lakes region and the Upper Midwest. This long-term process began in the 1950s but only drew national attention in the 1970s and 1980s.
The once heavily industrialized regions of the Northeast and Midwest that went into decline after deindustrialization. By the 1970s and 1980s, these regions were full of abandoned plants and distressed communities.
Middle class whites who could afford to began to move away from urban neighborhoods where crime, pollution, and racial integration of schools made that option more attractive
Era of Limits
For the first time in its history, the U.S. in the Seventies began to realize that economic growth could not solve all its problems; environmental concerns; resource scarcity, and a more complex balance of military and economic power led many Americans to become more pessimistic about their futures
A movement to lower or eliminate taxes. California's 1978 Proposition 13, which rolled back property taxes, capped future increases for present owners, and required that all tax measures have a two-thirds majority in the legislature, was the result of one such revolt, inspiring similar movements across the country.
A 1978 measure passed overwhelmingly by Californians to roll back property taxes, cap future increases for present owners, and require that all tax measures have a two-thirds majority in the legislature. This law inspired "tax revolts" across the country and helped conservatives define an enduring issue: low taxes.
A term referring to the 1972 break-in at Democratic Party headquarters in the office & apartment complex in Washington, D.C., by men working for President Nixon's reelection campaign, along with Nixon's efforts to cover it up. The scandal following the break in led to President Nixon's resignation.
Nixon Impeachment Hearings
As a result of Congressional investigations into President Nixon's involvement with the Watergate Break In, and its subsequent illegal cover up, Congress began to debate whether to impeach President Nixon in order to try him in the Senate for "high crimes and misdemeanors"; Nixon resigned when he lost Republican support in Congress
War Powers Act
law that limited the president's ability to deploy U.S. forces without congressional approval. Congress passed this law in 1973 as a series of laws to fight the abuses of the Nixon administration.
Freedom of Information Act
Passed under LBJ in 1966 to enable citizens to require the Executive Branch to release public information on request that was not classified Secret or Top Secret, having to do with National Security. Created dramatic increase in governmental transparency.
Ethics in Government Act
Passed in 1978 as a reaction to the Watergate Scandal and discovery of presidential abuse of power; required full disclosure of all federal officials' financial affairs
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act/FISA
passed in 1978, in the wake of the Church Committee hearings revelations about the secret activities of the U.S. government spying on Americans without judicial authorization; amended as part of the 2001 Patriot Act to restore wiretapping of Americans without a search warrant in cases of imminent danger to national security.
The civil rights and war protests of the 1960s and 1970s led to a conservative political backlash in the Eighties; Southern whites and northern blue collar union workers left the Democratic Party for the Republican Party; leading to a solid "Red" South, along with the religious conservatives in many western states. Reagan's 1980 election and 1984 re=election showed the permanence of this realignment.
The lifting of New Deal-era regulations of various American industries. This began with President Carter's deregulation of the airline, trucking, and railroad industries and expanded under President Reagan in the 1980s to include cutting back on government protections of consumers, workers, and the environment. This process stimulated competition and cut prices, but it also drove firms out of business, hurt unionized workers, and led to crises in the financial sector.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, protesting Iranian university students and conservative Islamic supporters joined forces to overthrow America's main Middle Eastern ally, the Shah of Iran; the government lost control of mobs in Tehran, and Islamic militants overran the American Embassy and took 52 Americans hostage for 444 days during 1979 and 1981. American failure to gain the hostage's release and its failed rescue mission, led voters to reject Carter's leadership in 1980 election in favor of Ronald Reagan. Iran released the hostages the day of Reagan's inauguration.
Policies established in the 1960s and 1970s by governments, businesses, universities, and other institutions to overcome the effects of past discrimination against specific groups such as racial and ethnic minorities and women. Measures to ensure equal opportunity included setting goals for the admission, hiring, and promotion of minorities; considering minority status when allocating resources; and actively encouraging victims of past discrimination to apply for jobs and other resources.
Bakke v. University of California
1978 landmark SCOTUS decision allowing universities to use race as a factor in the admissions process in order to establish "racial diversity" on campus; disallowed "racial quotas".
Equal Rights Amendment/ERA
A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 that would require equal treatment of men and women under federal and state law. Facing fierce opposition from the New Right and the Republican Party, the ERA was defeated as time ran out for state ratification in 1982.
An organization founded by Phyllis Schlafly in 1972 to fight the Equal Rights Amendment. Schlafly advocated traditional roles for women, a message that resonated widely, especially among those troubled by the rapid pace of social change.
Roe v. Wade
A 1973 Supreme Court ruling that the Constitution protects a woman's right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to birth,overturning state laws prohibiting this choice in the early stages of pregnancy. The decision galvanized social conservatives and made abortion a controversial policy issue for decades to come.
The trend in Protestant Christianity stressing salvation through conversion, repentance of sin, and adherence to Scripture; it also stresses the importance of preaching over ritual.
First openly gay politician in the U.S.; served as San Francisco councilman; assassinated--along with SF Mayor Frank Moscone by angry fellow councilman
Warren Burger succeeded Earl Warren as the Chief Justice; appointed by Nixon as a judicial conservative; the Burger Court moderated, but did not reverse, the liberal direction of the Court under warren
blue collar blues
The decline of primary industries and the closing of factories with high paying union jobs in the Seventies--left formerly middle class blue collar workers without income and few job prospects
The combination of the decline in strict Puritan sexual morality, the so-called "Playboy" philosophy for men, the new freedom for women with the women's movement,and the more tolerant attitudes toward alternative sexual orientation created the Sexual Revolution of the Sixties and Seventies.
As zeal for social and political reform declined with the elimination of the draft and the end of the Vietnam War and the slowing down of the civil rights movement, people's' attention migrated from "we" to "me"--a concern with their personal well-being, spiritual satisfaction, and material comfort; increasingly, people sought out psychological help and therapy to deal with their personal issues
As the Seventies continued, the former hippies began to turn away from the hedonistic "me values" of drugs. sex, and rock and roll, to more traditional religious values centered on the welfare of the children, fidelity, stability, obedience to authority, etc.