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Psych 258 Lec 1
Terms in this set (51)
What are the 5 antecedents to cognitive psych?
Philosophy, early experimental psych, functionalism, behaviourism, and verbal learning
List the 3 philosophical approaches listed in class.
Classical philosophy, nativism vs empiricism, and Descartes
What were the contributions of classical philosophers to cog psych?
1. Mind can be understood and predicted. 2. Explanations must be physical. 3. Important questions about percptn, mem, and knowledge
In nativism ideas are ___.
In empiricisim ideas are ___.
What was Descartes compromise btwn nativism and empiricism?
First extended treatment of philosophy of mind. Ideas can be either innate or learned.
What two things did Wundt's lab do that contributed to cog psych?
Study of unobservable mental events and introspective method
What school of psych did Wundt follow/invent?
Describe the introspective method.
Characterize basic sensations/feelings in consciousness. Find rules to combine elements. Plausible approach to understanding mental events. Training to improve reliability and consistency.
What were the two "successes" of introspection?
1. They showed that mental activity can be broken down into more basic operations. 2. They developed objective methods for assessing mental activity.
What were the two failures of introspection?
1. Results were not consistent across labs. 2. Training may have prod'd "right" answer.
Who were the 3 proponents of functionalism?
William James, James Cattell, and Edward Thorndike
What school of psych first used objective responses as data?
What concept did behaviourism reject?
Mentalism (structuralism/introspection, etc)
What is the primary tenet of behaviourism?
Psych should concern itself w/ the observable behavr of ppl and animals, not w/ unobservable events that take place in their minds. (Just record observable stimulus and the observable response it produces, don't take account of the mental processes in btwn the two)
___ ___ is the behaviourist approach to human learning and memory.
Verbal learning (ex: nonsense syllable list learning, paired-associate list learning)
Verbal learning is the ___ approach to human learning and memory.
What is verbal learning typically discussed as?
Assocn's btwn stim and respns
What are the 2 covert lessons from verbal learning?
1. Memory as unobservable mental representation. 2. Contribution of mental operations to memory (ex: rehearsal, strategy, mnemonics)
What 3 things lead to the birth of cognitive psychology?
Information processing, computer science, and linguistics
What are the 2 aspects of information processing?
Measures of information and signal processing
List 3 info processing tasks.
Choice rxn, rapid forgetting, iconic memory
What is the choice rxn task?
Requires distinct rspnses for each possible class of stimulus. Ex: Jensen box
What is iconic memory?
The visual sensory memory register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual info. Component of the visual mem system which includes visual STM and LTM. Described as very brief (<1000 ms), pre-categorical, high capacity mem store.
What do info processing tasks imply?
That the sequence of rapid mental events determines response
Computer science has a vocabulary for describing mental events w/ ___ ___.
What 2 developments in Linguistics contributed to the birth of cog psych?
1. Transformational grammar as theory of language understanding. 2. The Chomsky-Skinner Debate.
Skinner had successful application of ___ theory to broad range of phenomena in learning.
Describe the Chomsky-Skinner Debate.
Skinner extended his S-R theory to human acquisition of language, while Chomsky argued that S-R is inadequate to explain language and its acquisition
Who came up with the transformational grammar theory?
What were the 4 aspects of the cognitive revolution?
"Methodological behaviourism", the Atkinson-Shiffrin framework, knowledge-based processing, and human problem solving.
What are the 3 continuing contributions of behaviourism to cog psych?
Objectv measrs, reproducible methods, and descriptive precision
What is the name of the process that turns STM into LTM?
What two processes turn LTM into STM?
Retrieval and rehearsal
Is working mem STM or LTM?
What are the 3 aspects of the Atkinson-Shiffrin Framework?
Inclusive theorizing, processing pathways, and representation formats
What are the 3 aspects of knowledge-based processing?
Context and perception, analysis by synthesis, and schema theory
What are the 3 aspects of human problem solving?
Task analysis, verbal protocols, and computer simulation
Describe computer simulation of human problem solving.
Working computer program is complete account of a sequence of operations to solve problem. Also provides description of how humans might solve problem. Match of human/program provides evidence for that account.
What is the computer metaphor?
It compares the mind to a modern day digital computer
What is methodogical behaviourism?
Objective study of behaviour,k no mental life, no internal states, thought is covert speech.
Who came up with methodological behaviourism?
What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory framework?
Model of memory that can be broken down into sub-models of memory: the multi-memory model and the modal model. It proposes that human memory involves a sequence of 3 stages: sensory mem (SM), STM, and LTM.
What are the 3 stages of human memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin framework?
Sensory memory, STM, and LTM
List 3 kinds of sensory memory.
Echoic, haptic, iconic
What is echoic memory?
For retaining auditory info. Sensory memory of sounds that people have just perceived is a form of echoic memory.
What is the main diffrnc btwn auditory and visual stimuli, as pertaining to sensory memory?
Our eyes can scan visual stimuli over and over, while the auditory stimuli cannot be re-heard
What is haptic memory?
A form of sensory memory that refers to the recollection of data acquired by touch after a stimulus has been presented. Haptic memory is used regularly when assessing the necessary forces for gripping and interacting w/ familiar objects.
What is a schema?
An organized pattern of thought or behaviour. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework rep'ng some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information.
What is task analysis?
The analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required ofr one or more people to perform a given task.
What are verbal protocols?
Rich data sources containing individuals' spoken thoughts that are assoc'd w/ working on a task. (ex: thinking aloud)
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
Richard A. Kasschau
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