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42 terms

Test Two

Myers 8e
STUDY
PLAY
Five-year-old, Ling, is beginning to show signs of being able to plan ahead in a somewhat rational manner. At her age, this development is likely due to:
neural networks sprouting in her frontal lobes
During this stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development, children are able to think logically about
events; grasp analogies, and perform arithmetical operations.
concrete operational
Five-year-old, Otto, complained to his mom that the pizza was not big enough. Otto's mom cut the pizza into smaller slices, thus making Otto happy as he believed the pizza had become larger. Otto lacks the concept of:
conservation
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of another person's state of mind are most characteristic of:
crystallized intelligence
The process of attachment occurs during a brief developmental phase known as:
a critical period
Sharon's father demands total obedience from his children. When he speaks, he expects his children to listen. There is no discussion, no arguing. He has zero tolerance for breaking the rules he has set forth. Sharon's father has this type of parenting style:
authoritarian
When pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later demonstrated:
homosexual behavior
As adults age, they show the greatest declines in:
fluid intelligence and in the memory needed to recall recently presented information
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement is known as:
the social clock
The fact that perceptions involve more than the sum of our sensations best illustrates the importance of
top-down processing
The brain interprets loudness from the number of _______ a sound activates.
hair cells
Jasmine was in a serious car accident. She suffered damage to her temporal lobe, just behind her right ear. What kind of problems might this cause for her?
She might have trouble recognizing familiar faces.
The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is the:
Rod
According to the _________________, the retina has three types of color receptors. Each of these types is sensitive to one of three colors: red, green, or blue.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
The cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs make up the:
Inner ear
What theory explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds with a frequency greater than 5000 Hz?
Place theory
Astra is house-sitting. On the first night, a thunderstorm causes the electricity to go out. She remembers seeing some candles and matches next to the grandfather clock. Why does she automatically cock her head when trying to pinpoint the sound of the clock?
that her two ears will receive slightly different messages
The absolute threshold for taste sensations is relatively _____ among people who smoke and relatively _____ among people who abuse alcohol.
high; high
Kari is a fan of heavy metal music. Her mother is concerned because she knows that prolonged exposure to ear-splitting music can cause:
sensorineural hearing loss
Which of the following illustrates the principle of visual capture?
When there is a conflict between visual information and that from another sense, vision tends to dominate
Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by
Gestalt psychologists
Although several students in the classroom are talking loudly, Jim's attention is focused only on what his girlfriend is saying. In this instance, the girlfriend's voice is a
figure
You read about an accident at a rail-crossing and wondered about the cause. Perhaps it was caused by ________________ (a monocular clue concerning parallel lines), which might have led the car's driver to overestimate the distance of the train.
linear perspective
The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for depth perception known as:
retinal disparity
People deprived of visual experience early in life will later have difficulty perceiving individual human faces as having
a whole form
We recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of how the viewing angle changes. This fact that illustrates
perceptual constancy
The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of
proximity
Circadian rhythms are the:
regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule
You go to bed at your regular time, and as you begin to drift slowly off to sleep, you jump up suddenly as you feel you are falling down the stairs. This is best explained by a:
hypnagogic sensation
REM sleep deprivation results in REM rebound. t/f
true
Adults spend more time than infants in REM sleep. t/f
false
People deprived of REM sleep adapt easily. t/f
false
Sleeping Medications tend to increase REM sleep
false
Which sleep disorder is most strongly associated with obesit
sleep apnea
This sleep disorder is characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. This disorder occurs during Stage 4 sleep within two to three hours of falling asleep.
night terrors
Susan has been prescribed medication to keep her awake and less likely to fall asleep behind the wheel of her car. She most likely suffers from:
narcolepsy
After being deprived of REM sleep, a person spends more time in REM sleep. This is the ______ effect.
REM rebound
Studying for his final exams, Leon is forced to do a great deal of memorization. Unfortunately, his next-door neighbor has a dog that is prone to barking at night. Amazingly, the barking coincides almost precisely with Leon's REM sleep cycle, interrupting his ability to dream. Leon does very poorly on his exams. According to the information-processing theory of dreams, an explanation for his poor performance is:
The barking interfered with his RM sleep which interfered with his memory consolidation
The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to ______________ theory of dreams
Freud's wish-fulfillment
The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is
inattentional blindness
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if there are also conversion on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of
selective attention
Bright light effects our feelings of sleepiness by increasing or decreasing the production of
melatonin