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chemotrophic energy metabolism is ____ respiration
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Terms in this set (103)
___ includes Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation, TCA Cycle, Electron Transport, and ATP SynthesisRespirationstage 1 of respiration is the ___ pathway and converts one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvateglycolysisstage 2 of respiration occurs if oxygen is present, and pyruvate is further oxidized to ____ _____acetyl CoAstage 3 of respiration: acetyl CoA enters the ____ ____ cycletricarboxylic acidthe TCA cycle completely oxidizes acetyl CoA to ___ and conserves the energy as _____ coenzyme (NAD+ and FAD+) molecules that are high energy compounds on their ownCO2, Reducedstage 4 of respiration involves ____ transport from the reduced coenzymes to ____, which are coupled to the active transport (pumping) of protons across a membraneelectron, oxygentransfer of electrons from coenzymes to oxygen is _____ and provides the energy needed to drive the pumping of protons across the membraneexergonicthe pumping of protons across the membrane results in the generation of an _____ ____ ____ across the membraneelectrochemical proton gradientstage 5 of respiration derives the synthesis of ____ from the energy of the proton gradientATPthis mode of oxygen-dependent ATP synthesis is called _____ ______oxidative phosphorylationthe _____ is the organelle where most of the ATP generation occurs, it is the energy powerhouse of the cellmitochondriamitochondria are found in virtually all ____ cells of eukaryotes, typically clustered in cells with the most intense metabolic activity where ATP needs are the greatestaerobic____ are found in muscle cells, sperm, flagella, ciliamitochondriathe folds of mitochondria are called ____cristaethe liquid part of mitochondria is called ____matrixthe outer membrane of mitochondria has many ____porinscristae has __ complex dotted all along itFothe Fo complex located on the cristae membrane locks onto the ___ complex in the matrixF1Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by ___ _____oxidative decarboxylationpyruvate is formed in the ____cytoplasmpyruvate is small and passes through the ____ in the mitochondrial outer membrane into the intermembrane spaceporins___ symporter transports specific pyruvate across the inner membrane to the matrixH+pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by ____ _____ complex, which catalyzed oxidative decarboxylationpyruvate dehydrogenaseCoA contains the B vitamin ____ ____pantothenic acidNicotinamide of NAD+ and riboflavin of FAD+ are also _ vitamins, which are essential nutritional requirements; humans and vertebrates _____ synthesize themB, cannotanother name for the Tricarboxylic Acid cycle is the ____ cycle, which is a cyclic pathwayKrebs____ is an important intermediate in the TCA cycle, and it has ___ carboxylic acid groupscitrate, 3the TCA cycle has ___ steps and begins with the entry of ____ as acetyl CoA8, acetatetwo ____ _____ then form NADH and release CO2oxidative decarboxylationsdirect generation of ___ or ___ occurs at one stepGTP, ATPThe final oxidative reactions generate ____ and ___FADH2 and nADHThe products of TCA cycle are 2 ___, 1 ___, 3 ____, and 1 ___ per acetyl group that enters the TCA CycleCO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2with glycolysis and TCA cycle of aerobic respiration ___ molecules of NADH and ___ molecules of FADH2 are produced per glucose molecule10, 22 NADH are produced from ___glycolysis2 NADH are produced from the conversion of pyruvate to ____ ___Acetyl CoA6 NADH are produced in ____TCA2 FADH2 are produced in ___TCAthe TCA cycle serves as a source of precursors for ____ pathwaysanabolicthe process of coenzyme reoxidation by the transfer of electrons to oxygen is called ___ ___ and is the fourth stage of respiratory metabolismelectron transportNADH to NAD+ delta G value is ____ kcal/mol-52.4FADH2 to FAD+ delta G value is ____ kcal/mol-45.9the delta G values for NAD+ and FAD+ are highly _____ and enough to synthesize several ATP moleculesexergonicelectron transfer is accomplished in multistep process, involving a series of ____ ____, together called the ____ ____ _____electron carriers, electron transport systemthe ___ consists of 5 kinds of carriers 1. flavoproteins 2. iron-sulfur proteins 3. cytochromes 4. copper containing cytochromes 5. Co-enzyme QElectron Transport System______ carriers are FAD/FMN containing proteinsFlavoproteins_____ are FE-containing protein carriersCytochromes____ containing cytochromes are protein carriersCopperIron-Sulfur proteins are another kind of ____ carrierETS_____ ___ is the only non-protein ETS carrierCoenzyme QThe carriers for ETS are ____ molecules and occur in the membranes as _____ _____hydrophobic, respiratory complexes5 kinds of _____, b,c,c1,a,a3cytochromescytochromes _ & _ additionally have a single copper atom bound to the hemea a3cytochromes __, ___, ___, & ___ are integral membrane proteinsb, c1, a, a3cytochrome __ is a peripheral membrane proteinccoenzyme Q is also called ____ and is the only non-protein component of ETSubiquinone____ reversibly accepts and releases electrons and protons by accepting protons on one side of the membrane and releasing protons to the other side of the membranecoenzyme Qthe electron carriers function in a sequence determined by their _____ potentialsreductionin the electron transport system, the position of each electron carrier is determined by its ____ _____ ____ which is a measure of affinity a compound has for electronsstandard reduction potentialETS is a series of chemically diverse electron carriers with the ____ of their participation determined by their relative reduction potentialsorderthe electron transfers from NADH to the final acceptor, oxygen, is thermodynamically _____ and _____spontaneous, exergonicthe free energy released during electron transport is used to generate an ____ ____ ____ and the energy of the gradient is used to drive ____ synthesiselectrochemical proton gradient, ATP____ coupling model: The link between electron transport and ATP formation is the electrochemical potential across a membranechemiosmoticcoenzyme oxidation pumps enough protons to form __ ATP per NADH, and __ ATP per FADH23, 4,transfer of 2 electrons from each NADH down the respiratory chain to oxygen is accompanied by the transmembrane pumping of __ protons per NADH molecule __ protons from complex 1 __ protons from complex 3 __ protons from complex 410,4,4,2___ protons are required to drive the synthesis of one molecule of ATP by the FoF1 ATP Synthase3oxidation of NADH yields __ molecules of ATP3Oxidation of FADH2 yields __ molecules of ATP2F1 component of the ATP synthase has ___ _____ activityATP SynthesisProton ____ through Fo drives ATP Synthesis by F1translocationcomplete oxidation of glucose by glycolysis and TCA cycle results in the generation of __ molecules of ATP and the remaining energy is stored in ___ coenzyme molecules ( __ of NADH and __ of FADH2)4, 12, 10, 2Electrons from all the NADH molecules pass through the ETS, yielding __ ATP molecules per molecule of NADH3for FADH2, electrons traverse two of the three ETS complexes yielding __ ATP Molecules2maximum ATP yield for reoxidation of 12 coenzymes per glucose is ___ 10 NADH oxidized yields __ ATP 2 FADH2 yields __ ATP glycolysis yields __ ATP TCA yields __ ATP38, 30, 4, 2, 2Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation together yields ___ ATP34NADH-Coenzyme Q oxidoreductase is which complexcomplec 1Succinate-Coenzyme Q oxidoreductase is which complexcomplex 2Coenzyme Q- cytochrome C oxidoreductase is which complexcomplex 3Cytochrome C oxidaseComplex 4cytochromes contain ___hemePyruvate to Acetyl CoA is catalyzed by what enzymePyruvate dehydrogenase complexTCA-1, Acetyl CoA to Citrate is catalyzed by what enzymeCitrate SynthaseTCA-2, Citrate to Isocitrate, is catalyzed by what enzymeAconitaseTCA-3, Isocitrate to alpha-ketogluterate, is catalyzed by what enzymeIsocitrate dehydrogenaseTCA-4, alpha-ketogluterate to Succinyl CoA, is catalyzed by what enzymealpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenaseTCA-5, Succinyl CoA to Succinate, is catalyzed by what enzymesuccinyl coA synthetaseTCA-6, Succinate to Fumarate, is catalyzed by what enzymesuccinate dehydrogenaseTCA-7, Fumarate to Malate, is catalyzed by what enzymeFumarate hydrataseTCA-8, Malate to Oxaloacetate, is catalyzed by what enzymeMalate dehydrogenasePyruvate to Ethanol is catalyzed by 2 enzymes, what are theyPyruvate Decarboxylase, Alcohol DehydrogenasePyruvate to Lacate is catalyzed by what enzymeLactate DehydrogenasePyruvate to Acetyl CoA is catalyzed by what enzymePyruvate Dehydrogenasewhat is the substrate for aerobic respiration? also the same substance that comes about what pyruvate is converted to an activated form in the presence of oxygenAcetyl CoAWhen oxygen is absent, pyruvate is ___ so that NADH can be oxidized to NAD.reduced