APWH Chapter 5 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
C (Although the Chinese developed a more mystical side with Daoism, Confucianists focused on matters in this world and believed that human rationality had the power to understand earthly realities.)
Which of the following was primarily a philosophical movement, rather than a religion focusing on the supernatural?
B (Human sacrifice was exceptional or nonexistent in China, India, the Middle East, and Greece, where these religious/philosophical traditions evolved.)
All EXCEPT which of the following statements is true of the religious and philosophical traditions that developed in Eurasia in the centuries surrounding 500 b.c.e.?
a. All sought to define a single source of order and meaning in the universe.
b. All elevated the value of humankind.
c. All reacted in some way to an earlier polytheism.
d. All emphasized personal moral or spiritual transformation.
D (Although Buddhism later became an important element of Chinese culture, the religion was founded in India, not China, unlike Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.)
Which of the following cultural traditions did NOT develop in China during the "age of warring states"?
A (The philosophy of Legalism had a pessimistic view of human nature, believing that most people are too stupid to act in their own interest, so the state must step in and provide order with strictly-enforced laws.)
Which of the following statements is the best definition of the Chinese philosophy known as Legalism?
a. Legalists believed that social harmony could be created and maintained by clearly spelling out laws and enforcing them strictly with rewards and punishments.
b. Legalists believed that the way to create social harmony was by strict adherence to moral "laws" that people would be taught to obey voluntarily.
c. Legalists believed that the laws of China were handed down from heaven, and that divine forces would destroy those who did not follow them.
d. Legalists believed that the best way to provide social harmony was by creating a wide popular consensus to legislate and enforce laws.
B (An effort to be at one with nature is typical of Daoism rather than Confucianism. The essence of Confucian teaching is that, in all relations, the superior should cultivate moral goodness, or ren, the better to be an example to inferiors.)
Confucius believed that it was possible to restore social harmony in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?
a. Superiors should provide a good moral example to their inferiors.
b. People should meditate on nature as the key means to restore their sense of balance with the world.
c. Elites should receive a broad liberal arts education as the key to moral improvement.
d. Superiors should cultivate benevolence or nobility of heart as the essential ingredient of a peaceful society.
C (The writer Ban Zhao in her Lessons for Women emphasizes the need for humility and yielding as an essential characteristic of the "good" woman in Confucian society. Confucians did not believe that women were equal to men in any sense, but did not advocate seclusion as the Athenians did with their women.)
Which of the following statements best expresses Confucian sentiments about women?
a. Although women are weaker than men physically, the two sexes are intellectually equal.
b. Women are subordinate to their husbands, but they are equal to their brothers and other family members of their own generation.
c. Women should maintain modesty and always yield to others.
d. Women should be veiled and strictly secluded at all times.
D (Encouragement of spontaneity was a characteristic of Daoism, not Confucianism. Among the positive effects of Confucianism, however, were the door it opened for social mobility and its emphasis on moral behavior by the government as well as by individuals.)
Which of the following is NOT an effect that Confucianism had on Chinese culture?
a. Thanks to Confucianism, elite Chinese culture was essentially nonreligious in character.
b. The Confucian-based examination system allowed some social mobility for talented young men who were able to afford an education.
c. Confucianism stressed that emperors should rule justly and provide for the material needs of their people.
d. Confucianism encouraged individualistic and natural behavior among the elite.
A (The central concept of Daoism is the dao, the way of nature—the underlying principle that governs all natural phenomena, including human life.)
Belief in an underlying and unchanging principle that governs all natural phenomena is central to which of the following cultural traditions?
C (The Chinese elite widely regarded Daoism as complementary to Confucianism, often practicing both simultaneously.)
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Daoism and Confucianism, as understood by Chinese elites?
a. Daoism is an offshoot of Confucianism that develops the mystical elements inherent in Confucius' teachings.
b. Daoism and Confucianism were usually in strict opposition to each other, and people could not practice both simultaneously.
c. Daoism and Confucianism were regarded as complementary rather than contradictory.
d. Most Confucians despised Daoism as a meaningless superstition.
D (The Upanishads are products of the religious development of the classical age that turned from unquestioning ritual to introspection and that turned away from simple propitiatory rituals as the sole means of satisfying the gods. Discontent with the privileged Brahmin caste also played a role in this religious transformation in India.)
Which of the following statements about the Upanishads is TRUE?
a. They are a body of works that seek to probe the inner meaning of the earlier Vedas.
b. They put a priority on introspection instead of external ritual.
c. They were a response to discontent, as the Brahmins claimed too much wealth and privilege through their control of Vedic rituals.
d. All of the above.
A (Buddhism began with its founder Siddhartha Gautama's quest to understand old age, sickness, and death. The central teaching of the religion is that life is unsatisfactory because of craving for individual fulfillment and attachment to individual ego.)
Which of the following cultural traditions is most concerned with the imperfection and impermanence of human life?
B (Hinduism looked to the religious authority of the Brahmins and the intercession of many supernatural buildings as aids in the quest for spiritual development; Buddhism, by contrast, emphasized individual responsibility and self-effort.)
Buddhism shares all EXCEPT which of the following teachings with Hinduism?
a. The concept of karma and rebirth
b. The need for individuals to take responsibility for their own spiritual development
c. The practice of meditation
d. The hope for a final release from the cycle of rebirth
C (Buddhist history tells that at first the Buddha's own foster mother was refused admission to the order of Buddhist monks, although the Buddha reversed his decision and created an order of nuns. They were subordinate to men, but their position was still attractive, because they had relative freedom and were in fact forbidden to do household chores.)
Which of the following statements best explains the position of women as classical Buddhist nuns?
a. Buddhist nuns, like their secular counterparts, remained under the strong patriarchal authority of their father or other male head of family.
b. Women lived in double monasteries with men, where they were expected to tend to the household needs of the male monks while also devoting themselves to meditation.
c. The position of Buddhist women was better than that of women in Hinduism, but they were still restricted and subordinated to men.
d. Buddhist nuns were recognized to have full spiritual equality with men, and could serve in positions of authority over both men and women.
D (Mahayana, the "Great Vehicle" of Buddhism, was more accessible to a much larger populace, because it offered the consolation of a divine Buddha, the assistance of bodhisattvas in the spiritual quest, and developed the notion being "saved" through the intervention of supernatural beings.)
Which of the following is NOT a difference between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism?
a. Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism venerates the Buddha as a god.
b. Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism holds that spiritually developed people (bodhisattvas) help others to reach nirvana, instead of emphasizing that individuals were on their own.
c. Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism became a popular religion of salvation.
d. Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism instituted a formal priesthood whose rituals were meant to help people reach nirvana.
B (Monasticism is typical of Buddhism, not Hinduism. But Hinduism included elements of the other three, from the early Vedic rituals performed by the Brahmin caste to the intense introspection that marked the Upanishads, to the bhakti movement that focused religious adoration on a particular deity.)
Which of the following was never an important element in Hinduism?
a. Intense introspection in an effort to understand the meaning behind traditional rituals
b. Retreat from the world to an organized, communal religious life
c. Intense adoration and identification with a particular deity through song, prayer, and ritual
d. Elaborate rituals performed by a hereditary priestly caste
A (Zoroastrianism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Christianity are all religions of personal salvation; Daoism, by contrast, does not deal with the fate of the soul after death.)
All EXCEPT which of the following religions foretells a savior figure who will restore either individuals or the world itself to purity and peace?
c. Mahayana Buddhism
D (The notion of a Jewish covenant with God was developed in the belief that God is singular, transcendent, actively concerned with human history, and that he demands social justice and righteousness as the most pleasing form of worship.)
Which of the following is NOT part of the distinctively Jewish conception of the divine?
a. Belief that there is only one God, usually regarded as masculine
b. Belief that God demands social justice and moral righteousness above sacrifices
c. Belief that God is engaged in the human historical process
d. Belief that God is part of the forces of nature, and that he expresses himself through them
B (The Greek way of knowing focused on its way of asking questions, with a strong emphasis on the power of human reason.)
Which cultural tradition is particularly noted for its emphasis on logic and relentless questioning of received wisdom, without giving much role to the gods?
a. Confucian philosophy
b. Greek philosophy
C (Both the Buddha and Jesus emphasized the importance of love or compassion as the foundation of a moral life. But it is true that Jesus was much more concerned about the divine, preached a more social message, and was killed by state authorities at a young age.)
Which of the following comparisons between the teachings of Jesus and the Buddha is NOT true?
a. More than the Buddha, Jesus actively engaged with the supernatural, both by talking about God and by working miracles.
b. Jesus was much more concerned with the poor and oppressed than was the Buddha.
c. Only Jesus stressed love of others as a central teaching.
d. Only the Buddha died peacefully after a long life of public preaching.
B (To Romans, the strangest and most offensive thing about Christianity was Christians' insistence on exclusive monotheism. Much easier to understand and approve were the facts that Christians did not insist on Jewish rituals such as circumcision, cared for one another, and could support the truth of their message with tales of impressive miracles.)
All EXCEPT which of the following helped early Christianity spread in the Roman Empire?
a. Paul's message that Jesus' message was for everyone, not just Jews, and that converts did not need to follow Jewish rituals
b. The widespread popularity of monotheism as a religious concept in the Roman Empire
c. Christianity's good reputation for the care its followers gave to one another
d. Reports of impressive miracles