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Geoscience Midterm Exam Review Weekly Review Questions

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Nearly all of Earth's surface water is contained in:
a) The oceans
b) Rivers, glaciers and ice caps
c) Holding tanks at the Pepsi Bottling Company in Marion, Illinois
A
The oceans represent far less water than the water (H2O) that is bound to minerals in Earth’s interior:
• a) True b) False
A
Water on Earth (and hence ocean water) most likely formed:
• a) During the first 0.5 x 10^9 (half billion) years of Earth's history
b) From emission (degassing) of volatiles from Earth's interior
c) From melting of glaciers and polar ice caps
d) (a) and (c)
e) (a) and (b)
E
The Scientific method:
a) is a belief based approach
b) is an empirical approach based on observations and facts
c) leads to Laws and Theories that do not change
d) can only be used by licensed scientists
e) none of the above
B
It is easier to prove a theory or hypothesis than it is to disprove a theory or hypothesis.
• a) T or b) F
B
The "Goldilocks Principle," in part, suggests that Earth has
just the right position in the solar system to allow retention
of liquid water and habitability for life.
• a) T or b) F
A
Water in the world ocean came from Earth's interior
• A. This is a falsifiable, scientific hypothesis
• B. This is a known proven fact
• C. This is a reasonable, based on what we know about earths composition and internal structure
• D. All of the above
• E. A and c
E
Extreme variation in the ocean's temperature is prevented by water's
a) density.
b) transparency.
c) viscosity.
d) heat capacity.
e) compressibility.
D
The course web site has an article about a violent storm in 1992 that tossed 20 containers of rubber duckies overboard. T/F
T
Key physical properties of water include:
a) viscosity, which is a measure of the mass per unit volume of water.
b) surface tension, which is the property that makes water form into droplets when it’s raining.
c) heat capacity, which is a measure of the heat required to change the temperature of water.
d) none of the above
e) b & c.
E
Latent heat is the
a) energy required to change ice to liquid water
b) energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celcius
c) important in energy transfer from the ocean to atmosphere
d) energy required to heat liquid water from 10 to 100 degrees
e) (a) and (c)
A
Heat capacity is a measure of the temperature of water T/F
F
Land heats and cools more rapidly than bodies of water. T/F
T
Heat, Temp and changes of phase. Which state is correct about this plot?
• A) Ice changes to water at 50C
• B) Heat is required to change ice to water is known as latent heat
• C) Once ixe menlts, heat will cause temperature to rise this is known as sensible hear
• D) B and C
• E) None of the Above
D
Which is the best answer
• viscosity is a measure of resistance to shear motion
• a low viscosity liquid pours more slowly than a high viscosity liquid
• the viscosity of water is zero
• water is highly compressible, which means that 1 kg of it occupies a much, much smaller volume at the bottom of the ocean than near the ocean surface
A
Consider: Two identical pots, filled with equal masses of fluid, on identical burners on a stove. Pot A is filled with a fluid of low heat capacity
Pot b is filled with a fluid of high heat capacity
• A) the material in Pot A has reached higher temp.
• B) the material in Pot B has reached a higher temperature
• C) Both pots are at the same temperature
A
It's gameday and you want to keep your pepsi cold as long as possible
• A material with high heat capacity
• A material with low heat capacity
• Doesn't matter because your trying to keep it cold not hot
A
Latent heat is
• a) the energy need to change the phase of a substance (i.e. ice to liquid water)
• b) the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celcius
• c) not important in energy transfer to hurricanes.
• d) energy used in heating water from 0-100 deg. C
A
It takes more heat to warm up water than it does to warm up rocks and soil (Earth). T/F.
T
The latent heat of fusion (melting) for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice? a) 80 calories
• b) 540 calories
• c) 800 calories
• d) 54 calories
• e) 5400 calories
C
The density of liquid water is:
• a) constant, independent of temp. over the range 0-100 deg. C
• b) higher than that of ice, which is why ice floats in water
• c) lower than that of ice, which is why ice sinks in water
• d) (a) and (b)
• e) none of the above
D
Seawater salinity is
• a) 35 ppt on average
• b) 35 g/kg on average
• c) the same in all parts of the world ocean
• d) (a) and (b)
• e) none of the above
D
Hurricanes strengthen and gain energy by
• A) release of latent heat at high elevation within the eye, which causes air to warm up and rise
A
Ocean Chemistry is influenced by:
• A) By water interacting with rocks ( earths crust) at the mid-ocean
• B) Evaporation of seawater
• C) River water
• D)Erosion and weathering of land
• E) All of the above
E
Which requires the largest amount of heat input?
• A) Melting 1 gram of ice
• B) Boiling 1 gram of liquid water ( that is, turning it into vapor)
• C) Raising the temperature of 1 gram of water from 0 to 100 degrees C (heat capacity is 1 cal/gram C)
• D) Freezing 2 grams of water to form ice
B
What are the six major elements dissolved in seawater, in order of relative abundance?
• A) Cl, Na, Fe, Mg, P, Ca
• B) Na, Cl, So4, K, P, Ca
• C) Cl, Na, So4, Mg, Ca, K
• D) Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, So4
• E) None of the above
C
Which of the following is most correct regarding the origin of salt in seawater?
• A)The ocean has about the same composition as average river water
• B)Hydrothermal circulation through midocean ridges is both a source and sink for certain elements
• C)Evaporation of seawater removes both water and salt to the atmosphere
• D)The ocean has become progressively more salty over geologic time, because rivers continually add salts to the ocean
• E)All of the above
B
One important connection between seawater chemistry and Earth's surface is rock weathering. a) T or b) F
A
The chemistry of ocean water is the same as river water. T/F
F
Seawater salinity is the same in all parts of the world ocean. T/F
F
The water cycle involves
o a) evaporation.
b) precipitation.
c) condensation.
d) all of the above.
e) none of the above
D
I know everything covered in Water Cycle Jump a) T or b) F
A
Ocean chemistry is influenced by
o a) inputs such as river water and volcanic gases.
b) outputs such as evaporates and interaction of seawater with the seafloor.
c) rock weathering
d) marine life including plants and animals
e) all of the above.
E
Residence time of an element in seawater can be calculated from the total amount of the element and the input rate. a) T or b) F
A
A water molecule may evaporate from the ocean, become part of a cloud and then become a rain drop that becomes part of a river and flows back into the Ocean. The average "residence" time for a molecule to make this trip is ~ 4,000 years. T/F
F
The residence time of an element in seawater is an indication of how rapidly it is cycled. Long residence times indicate low demand and/or infrequent precipitation as a mineral. T/F
T
Gases dissolve more readily in cold seawater than in warm seawater. a) T or b) F
A
The ocean is
o a) well mixed and has the same temperature at all depths
b) stratified into layers, such that shallow water has different properties than deep water.
c) well mixed and has the same density at all depths
d) (a) and (c)
e) none of the above
B
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain O2 T/F
F
The density of seawater
o a) decreases as it cools from 30 deg C to 5 deg C.
b) increases as salinity decreases from 35 to 33 ppt.
c) is minimum at 4 deg C, independent of salinity.
d) increases as temperature falls and salinity rises.
D
Freshwater reaches maximum density at the freezing point. a) T or b) F
F
• These are True!
o The most abundant element in seawater is Cl
o The element sodium is an element in salt and dissolves into seawater
o We have homework assignment due on January 29 and a quiz on Feb 4
A
• The concentration of dissolved oxygen in seawater is in part determined by
o The water temperature, the water salinity, the relative amount of respiration, the relative amount of photosynthesis
A
Sigma_t is a measure of
o a) salinity.
b) density.
c) temperature.
B
The ocean is stratified (layered) with the densest water on top and less dense water below. T/F
F
Which of the following is/are true about residence time for an element in seawater.
o A. It can be calculated from the total amount of the element present in coral reefs.
B. It can be calculated from the amount in Earth's interior.
C. It is given by the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by the input rate.
D. None of the above.
C
The thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline
o a) are unrelated
b) are names for the region between surface water and deep water
c) refer to changes in temperature, salinity and density.
d) (b) and (c)
D
There is more dissolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in ocean's surface waters because:
o a. Photosynthesis occurs primarily in deepwater
b. Organisms that respire produce CO2 in deep water
c. Photosynthesis in surface water uses C02
d. Deepwater is colder than shallow water and the solubility of CO2 is higher for colder water.
e. All but a
E
Latitudes above about 40 degrees N and S receive more solar energy than they lose. T/F
F
Large scale atmospheric winds and pressure systems
o a) are part of the transport of heat from low to high latitudes
b) are influenced by the Coriolis effect
c) have a regular pattern related to rising and descending winds at certain latitudes
d) all of the above
D
Hadley cells and Polar cells are caused by thermal anomalies associated with glaciers. a) T or b) F
F
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere (with the correct latitudes)?
o a) Tropic (0deg-30deg); Ferrel (30deg-60deg); Polar (60deg-90deg)
b) Tropic (0deg-30deg); Polar (60deg-90deg); Hadley (30deg -60deg)
c) Hadley (0deg-30deg); Ferrel (30deg-60deg); Polar (60deg-90deg)
d) Polar (0deg-30deg); Hadley (30deg-60deg); Ferrel (60deg-90deg)
e) None of the above
C
Uneven heating of Earth's surface results in
o a) belts of low and high pressure, which generate a three-dimensional pattern of winds
b) winds that include Easterlies, Westerlies, and upper atmosphere winds such as the Jet Stream
c) warmer conditions in polar regions than in tropical regions
d) a surplus of solar energy received in the tropics relative to high latitudes.
e) all but c
D