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Terms in this set (68)
3 steps of water purification
sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination
removes large objects and particles through flocculation
removes microorganisms by passing water through layer of sand, gravel, or microbe biofilm
involves adding chlorine gas to kill remaining organisms
Sewage treatment steps
screen, sediment, and sludge
drinking water standard
bacteriological analysis of water
tests for indicator organisms
presence of indicator organisms
shows that water has been contaminated by feces
bacteria live in mammalian intestines but can survive in water
standard plate count (SPC)
membrane filter technique used to determine numbers of bacteria in a water sample
MPN- most probable number
test determines number of bacteria by observing co2 gas production
carbon, nitrogen, sulfur
important for breaking down things in the ecosystem
carbon cycle is influnced by microorganisms like
photosynthetic and decomposers
convert CO2 into CHO, called carbon fixation
covert dead organic matter to release CO2 for reuse by plants
greenhouse effect, acid rain
microorganisms: food spoilage sources
airborne fall onto produce, crops carry soil borne microbes, food handling and prep
factors for microbial growth in food
water content, pH, physical structure, temperature, antimicrobials
antimicrobial substances in food
enzymes or chemical inhibitors like coumarins in fruit, garlic has intrinsic antimicrobial activities, hot sauces, rosemary
low ph tend towards
fungal growth not bacterial
perishable foods cho breakdown, not smelly, fungal growth
Rhizopus stolonifer, penicillium expansum, bortrytis cinerea)
perishable foods cho breakdown slimy/smelly bacterial growth
e.coli, pseudomonas fragi, pseudomonas florescens, erwinia, claostridium and bacillus
lipid breakdown seen in food
toxin seen in moldy bread
produces aflatoxins that accumulate in grains, nuts and corn
alfatoxins are linked to
liver and colon cancers
Claviceps purpurea deposit toxins in
rye, wheat and barley
toxin causes ergotism which induces convulsions and hallucinations seen from a grain fungus grown in rye
in corn its a carcinogenic toxin
high co2 in packaging reduces gram - bacteria on meat
prevents molds on bakery goods. inhibits enzymes by lowering the ph
prevent molds in cheeses, syrups, cakes, sodas. and is a natural organic compound
prevents molds in margarine and low pH products
wines, lemon juices (no meats)
prevents botulism also inhibits gram- bacteria e.coli and salmonella, and can can inhibit lipid oxidation that leads to rancidity
concern about sodium nitrate
aa with sodium nitrite???
phenolase inhibitor stops browning "good"
produced by bacterial to kill bacteria
Food borne disease
norwalk, campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, ecoli, listeria, shigella, vibrio parahaemolyticus
salmonella seen in what foods
dairy, meat, poulty, fish
e.coli 0157h7 seen in what foods
undercooked ground beef
listeria seen in what foods
pork and milk
vibrio parahaemolyticus seen in what food
relationship b/n different species that show intimate association with each other. paratism, commensalism, mutualism.
single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.
have microbes in gut to help breakdown food
has bioluminescent properties, and is found predominantly in symbiosis with various marine animals, such as the bobtail squid
are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. anerobic, archae bacteria
excess so2, oxides cause acidification
ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances
degrade oil and allow plant growth in oil spill regions
anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can reduce PCB to
CO2, water and hydrogen chloride
how can bacteria be used in weapon plants?
to decrease leaves of TNT
foods fermented by microbes
milk, meat/fish, alcohol, breads, tofu, pickles, soy sauce/kimchi
foods w microbes
lactobaccilus, lactococcus lactics. seen in cheese, buttermilk, soucream and kefir
streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus bulgariseus. thermophilic process
what establishes flavor in pickles?
well preserved and high in vit. c. anaerobic bacteria ferment CHO in cabbage cells.
probiotics in animals
beef cattle, USDA, chickens, BS reduces campylobacter, blend of bacteria to prevent salmonella
industrial products w/ microbes
acetic acid, citric acid, ethanol, lipase and rennet, antibiotic, insulin and vaccines
Identify several organic acids, amino acids, and vitamins produced by microorganisms in the industrial process
List several reasons why microorganisms are well suited for industrial processes.
List some enzymes that can be obtained industrially from microorganisms, and note the uses for each enzyme.
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