Excelsior U.S. History Unit 7 (Ch. 20)

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John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States, the first to engage in a televised debate, was an advocate for civil rights and the entire country was interested in the dealings of the first family. Despite his young age, difference opinions in policy and his Catholic religion, he won the Presidency mostly because he was a good-looking charismatic speaker during his televised debate. He was assassinated in 1963 in Dallas, Texas but the American government proved itself as a stable and sturdy system of government as the transition was smooth.
Flexible Response
The military strategy used under JFK which allowed for nonnuclear alternatives to a nuclear situation allowing us to fight limited wars all over the world through the creation of Special Forces.
Fidel Castro
The communist leader of Cuba who was intricately involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis. America and Russia both came to terms to end the standoff. One term was for America to remove its missiles in Turkey.
Berlin Wall
A concrete wall topped with barbed wire which divided the city of Berlin, Germany into two distinct sections to keep East Germans from leaving and going to West Berlin and beyond.
Hot Line
A dedicated phone established between the White House and the Kremlin to ease tensions during the Cold War which enabled the leaders of the two countries to communicate should another crisis arise.
Nikita Khrushchev
The leader of the U.S.S.R. from 1957 to 1964. He was in power during the rise of power of Fidel Castro in Cuba, the Bay or Pigs incident as well as the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was also the leader in charge of the construction of the Berlin Wall, and pressed the Soviet's to beat the Americans in the Space Race. President JFK and Khrushchev faced each other many times over the course of his presidency, and neither man wanted to back down.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Soviets had sent nuclear missiles to Fidel Castro in Cuba. JFK said that they must be removed. The Soviet Union sent more boats to Cuba (presumably with more missiles) and America responded by sending the Navy to stop them and amassing 100,000 soldiers in Florida to invade Cuba, if necessary. After about a week, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if we agreed to remove our missiles from Turkey.
Warren Commission
The group who investigated the assassination of President Kennedy and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had shot the president while acting on his own.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
The agreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union barring nuclear testing in the atmosphere.
New Frontier Mandate
The stance that JFK took trying to broaden progress in exploration of science and space, military contracts and the Peace Corp, as well as the eradication of ignorance and prejudice and poverty.
Peace Corps
Program created through JFK's New Frontier in which volunteers (usually new college grads) assisted in developing nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Alliance for Progress
Foreign aid program offering economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
President of the United States of America after JFK was shot. He pushed for civil rights and tax cuts, and did his best to help eliminate poverty just as JFK had. He was responsible for the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Head Start program for pre-schoolers, and both Medicare and Medicaid. He was an experienced politician and did a lot of good while in office.
Economic Opportunity Act
The Great Society legislation that played a big role in the war on poverty in America approving the spending of $1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business loans and job training.
Great Society
The term coined by LBJ to refer to the ideal American public, without poverty or injustice, and with a higher standard of living and equal opportunity for a richer quality of life for all; even without higher taxes. This program was designed to help minorities and the poor the most, but angered conservatives.
Medicare
Healthcare legislation which provided hospitalization and medical insurance for Americans over age 65.
Immigration Act of 1965
The new legislation which ended quotas and opened the American door to all kinds of people from all over the globe.
Reapportionment
The changing of the way that Congressional districts were aligned. Since most of the country's population was found in the cities, the Congressional districts needed to reflect those numbers.
Robert Kennedy
Appointed by his brother, JFK, as Attorney General.
Miranda vs. Arizona
The Supreme Court case through which the rights of people accused of crimes were protected. This is the case that began the Miranda Law by which people are read their rights upon being arrested.
Space Race
The contest to see which country could get a man on the moon first between the U.S. and Russia. It intensified after Russia put the first man in space and America became even more determined to win.

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