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Children under the age of 15 represent about __________ percent of the population of developing countries.
3. Evidence presented in the text suggests that birthrates among developing countries are lower with
(a) higher growth.
6. In stage III of the demographic transition,
(a) the birth rate and the death rate are relatively low.
9. The number of live births per 1000 people in the population per year is the
(d) crude birth rate.
10. Which of the following will cause the largest reduction in the birthrate?
(d) an increase in the opportunity cost of a woman's t
13. The proportion of the total population aged 0-15 and over 65, is known as the
(a) dependency burden.
14. The rate of natural increase in the population of developing countries is most correlated with
(a) advances in developed country technology
15. Which of the following is a direct implication of the view that childbearing is an economic decision?
(d) Fertility should fall with improved opportunities for women to work in jobs outside the home.
16. Which of the following geographic regions is expected to experience the largest percentage increase in its population between 2003 and 2050?
18. The Malthusian population trap model has been criticized on the grounds that it
(a) ignores the role of technological progress.
1. An argument supporting promotion of the urban informal sector is
(a) the formal sector is incapable of providing enough employment
2. Rural-urban migrants differ from the rest of the rural population in that they are more likely to be
(a) well educated
3. Other things constant, the elimination of factor price distortions in developing countries would most likely
(a) decrease rural-urban migration.
5. If the rural wage is 4 and the formal urban wage rate is 10, there will be rural to urban migration if the formal urban unemployment rate is
6. According to the United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Report, the annual growth in % of slum population from 1990-2001 has been the largest in:
(c) Sub-Saharan Africa
7. For what percentage of urban population growth is rural-urban migration responsible?
(a) between 35% and 60%.
8. According to UN projections, what proportion of the world's urban population will reside in the urban areas of developing countries by 2025?
(d) four fifths.
1. Developing countries have not benefited as much as expected from their higher education programs because of
(a) lack of program focus on the needs of the country.
3. It is important to place particular stress on the role of primary education in the development strategy because of
(d) all of the above.
4. Credential inflation results from
(c) the need to select from among qualified applicants in the modern sector.
5. The fact that developed countries have strong, widely attended university systems indicates that
(d) none of the above.
6. An individual's demand for education is most affected by
(a) direct and indirect costs of schooling.
7. Concentration of resources on higher rather than basic education in developing countries tends to lead to
(a) greater inequality.
8. The supply of public school places is determined by
(c) political processes, often unrelated to economic criteria.
9. Studies show that improved education of women in developing countries leads to
(a) lower infant mortality.
11. Child labor is a widespread problem that applies primarily to children
(a) between the ages of 5 and 14.
14. As the number of years of schooling completed increases, the expected private return and private cost of education
(c) increase at different rates with expected private return increasing at a faster rate than private cost.
15. According to the 2005 UNDP Human Development Report child mortality (under age 5) has declined in all regions of the world except:
(b) Sub-Saharan Africa
16. According to the Regional HIV and AIDS Statistics data from WHO, which region of the world has the largest number of adults and children living with HIV?
(b) Sub-Saharan Africa
4. Which of the following is an important factor in the success of agrarian land reform policies?
(c) farmer training programs.
5. It is important to place particular stress on the role of women in rural development programs because
(d) all of the above.
6. Sharecropping can be best understood as
(c) a compromise between peasant and landlord preferences.
7. A program through which new ideas, methods, and advice are offered to farmers to increase farm yields is known as
(a) agricultural extension.
8. In South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, about what share of the labor force works in agriculture?
(d) Two thirds.
9. In South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, about what share of output is contributed by agriculture?
(b) One fifth.
10. In which of these developing regions has food production per capita steadily fallen over the last quarter century?
11. In a world of perfect certainty, sharecropping would be less efficient than a farm owner working his own farm because
(a) sharecroppers receive only half of their marginal product.
12. During the 1990s, food production increased faster than population in all regions of the developing world except
(c) Sub-Saharan Africa.
14. The system of land tenure in which tenant farmers pay a fixed share of their crop to landowners is called
2. Sustainable development means
(c) meeting the present generation's needs without compromising the needs of future generations.
3. Which of the following environmental problems are largely caused by persistent poverty?
(d) All of the above.
6. The "cost of rainforest preservation" can be lowered for developing countries by
(a) the development of alternative rainforest products.
8. A resource that is publicly owned and allocated under a system of unrestricted access is known as
(c) a common property resource.
9. The portion of a country's overall assets that is directly related to the environment, such as forests and soil quality, is known as
(a) environmental capital.
10. The free rider problem is a situation in which
(b) one agent secures benefits that others pay for.
11. International resources shared by all countries such as oceans and air are known as
(a) global commons.
12. The annual income that can be consumed without diminishing the total capital assets of a nation is
(b) sustainable national income.
14. Which of the following conditions does not characterize perfect property rights markets?
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