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Urinary System: Physio Exam 5
Terms in this set (40)
3 areas of the kidney
1) cortex (outer)
2) medulla (middle)
3) renal pelvis (inner)
How many renal corpuscles does the cortex contain?
1 million renal corpuscles
Function of the renal corpuscles
Once the blood is filtered, where is the filtrate sent?
Through the nephron, into collecting ducts of the medulla
How many renal pyramids does the medulla contain?
8-15 renal pyramids
What is the rounded tip of the renal pyramid known as?
Funnel-like tube around each papilla
The minor calyces fuse together to form what?
Major calyces fuse together to form what?
The renal pelvis
the microscopic unit that modifies the blood filtrate to form urine
What does the renal corpuscle consist of?
a mass of capillaries = glomerulus
The glomerulus is surrounded by a spherical structure known as?
Bowman's (glomerular) capsule
3 parts of the renal tubule
1) Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
2) Loop of Henle (ascending, descending limbs)
3) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Structure of the nephron
a site at which a portion of the DCT comes in contact with adjacent arterioles
2 parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
1) macula densa
2) juxtaglomerular cells
DCT cells which monitor sodium concentration
Release renin in response to decreased sodium
is the filtering of the blood through the wall of glomerular capillary into the surrounding glomerular capsule
3 types of exchange processes
1) Glomerular filtration
2) Tubular reabsorption
3) Tubular secretion
Which arteriole is the blood brought into the glomerular capillaries through?
Once in the blood is in the capillary what dictates glomerular filtration pressure?
Glomerular filtration rate
The volume of plasma filtered per unit time
If there wasn't any compensation as our MAP increase or decreased, the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure would increase or decrease causing?
The GFR to constantly be changing (not desirable)
Why does our GFR essentially stay the same?
Several control mechanisms control as our MAP varies from 80-180mmHg
when the MAP rises, the afferent arteriole is stretched, and the GFR rises. In response, the arteriole vasoconstricts to help maintain a normal GFR (and vice versa)
Juxtaglomerular apparatus intrinsic control
if the volume in the DCT increases (perhaps due to increased GFR), the cells of the macula densa release chemicals to vasoconstrict the afferent arteriole and the GFR
in response to decreased MAP due perhaps to hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss, the sympathetic nervous system contracts efferent arterioles, this increases resistance and increases GFR
If this wasn't done, then everything that was filtered would leave the body
refers to the removal of substances from the filtrate in the renal tubule and their return to the plasma of the peritubular capillaries
How long would it take to lose 1L of fluid
Where does most tubular reabsorption take place?
In the PCT and some in the loop and DCT
requires energy and carriers or pumps to move substances against their concentration gradient through the tubule cells
since there is a limited number of carriers and pumps, all of them could be occupied. Thus, the system can be saturated. This results in 'spillover'
the movement of substances down their concentration gradient through the tubule cells
-this is based on differences in solute concentration
-As substances are reabsorbed (actively and passively), water will move in the direction of greater solute concentration
this is the movement of substances from the plasma of the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate (just the opposite of reabsorption)
What processes are utilized in secretion?
The same processes involved with reabsorption
What are the most commonly secreted substances?
Potassium and hydrogen ions
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