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Final exam pharmacology CSU FNP
Terms in this set (55)
What is the limitations when taking melatonin?
Not recommended to take melatonin more than three nights a week.
Recommended product for hyperlipidemia
Contraindication for fish oil
Western herb used for anxiety and depression
St. John's wort.
What drugs contraindication St. John's wort's use?
Mao inhibitors SSRIs and tricyclics. Mixing it with these drugs may cause serotonin syndrome.
Contraindication to using ginkgo biloba
What are topical immunomodulators used to treat?
Short term or intermittent treatment of atopic dermatitis. Examples include elidel and protopic.
What do you do with a patient with severe cystic acne?
Refer them to a dermatologist.
How is psoriasis initially treated?
Intermittent therapy with medium potency topical steroid creams.
What's recommended when a patient with eczema is becoming tolerant to steroid topical creams?
Treat the patient with a cyclic or interrupted schedule of treatment with topical steroids.
What is recommended when a patient experiences severe depression when taking accutane?
To contact the prescribing physician to talk about the possibility of stopping the accutane.
What are the correct techniques to use when applying topical antiviral and antibiotic topical preparations?
apply a thick layer with exAcerbations of the rash. Wash hands before and after using the topical preparations. Apply thick Layers on the affected areas.
What caution should be used when using ginsing?
It may potentiate insulin and cause hypoglycemia.
What is a risk taking cassia cinnamon?
It contains coumarin. This drug may cause liver failure.
Biophosponates treat or prevent osteoporosis by?
Inhibiting the osteoclastic activity therefore preventing osteoporosis
What is the danger of diabetics taking beta blockers?
They can mask the signs of hypoglycemia. Educate the patient to observe for diaphoresis, which could be the only symptoms of a low blood sugar.
How does metformin work?
It decreases glucose production in the liver.
What drugs shouldn't be prescribed to the patient taking byetta?
Coumadin. Digoxin. Lovastatin.
Signs and symptoms of levothyroxine toxicity include.
Chest pain. Palpitations. Tachycardia. Anxiousness and restlessness.
What is a normal side effect of growth hormone?
Minor bone pain.
What are the goals when treating hypothyroidism?
Weight will return to normal levels. Improved tiredness and fatigue. Normal thyroid hormone levels.
How is diabetes diagnosed?
A blood sugar greater than 200 mg dl with concurrent signs and symptoms of diabetes.
What are the major signs of diabetes?
Polydipsia. Polyphagia. Polyuria.
What can be found in most patients with type I diabetes?
Lab studies can reveal autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatases.
What lab studies are monitored when a patient is taking allopurinol?
Kidney functions. Bun and creatinine.
What is an expected side effect of colchicine?
What is the initial treatment of gout?
A low dose colchicine. It's just as effective as higher doses but with less side effects.
When is a patient tapered off of prednisone?
When they have been taking more than 40 mg po daily they should be tapered off.
Patients on long terms corticosteroid therapy need to take these drugs to prevent osteoporosis.
Calcium with vitamin D and a biophosponate to prevent bone loss.
Patients should monitor for what when taking long term corticosteroid therapy ?
Glucose levels. They can rise with steroid therapy.
Patients should be educated on signs and symptoms of GI bleeding when taking corticosteroids long term. These symptoms include
Nausea. Abdominal pain with black stools. Weakness and fatigue.
What should a patient taking Coumadin avoid?
The use of NSAIDs. This includes goody powders. Aspirin at high doses. Motrin. Aleve. And ibuprofen. Taking these drugs with anticoags places the patient at high risk for adverse bleeding events.
What are alpha 1 agonists used to treat?
Mainly used as a decongestant in the primary care setting
What are beta 2 agonists used to treat?
Bronchospasm and bronchoconstriction in the primary care settings
How do alpha 2 agonists work? Name 2 alpha 2 agonists.
Inhibits cardio acceleration and vasoconstrictive centers in the brain to lower blood pressure. Clonidine and methyldopa are alpha 2 agonists
Cautions when using alpha 2 agonists.
Recent MI. Renal disease. Presence of cerebral vascular disease.
What are selective alpha 1 antagonists used to treat? Give examples.
BPH and HTN. Examples include cardura hytrin flomax and uroxotrol.
Cautions when prescribing alpha 1 agonists.
Do not use with volume depleted patients. May worsen heart failure. Also may cause first dose hypotension.
Contraindication to beta blocker use.
Respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma. Beta blockers will worsen bronchoconstriction. Also beta blockers will worsen AV block, leading to heart failure. Also may make impotence worse.
Beta blocker used for heart failure in which a patient cannot tolerate changes in heart rate but needs beta blockade therapy.
Muscarinic poisoning antidote.
Cholinesterase inhibitors used to treat Alzheimer's.
Aricept. Galantamine. Rivastigmine. Namenda.
Cholinesterase inhibitors used to treat myasthenia gravis.
Neostigmine and pyridostigmine.
what is atropine IV used to treat?
bradycardia. It improves AV conduction by blocking parasympathetic influences on the heart.
Maximum time allowed for the use on anorexiants.
Contraindications for anorexiants.
Uncontrolled HTN. Cardiovascular disease. History of illicit drug use.
What can be recommended of aspirin causes GI upset and a GI bleed has been ruled out?
Add an h2receptor blocker such as Zantac.
What is a sign of aspirin toxicity?
Contraindication of using sulfonyeureas
Allergy to sulfa drugs.
What lab values are noted with hypothyroidism?
High TSH. Low T4.
First line treatment for type II diabetes.
Metformin with diet and exercise changes.
Side effect of metformin.
GI upset. Diarrhea. Improve with continued therapy.
Oral agent for type II diabetes with risks of hypoglycemia.
How do sulfonylureas work?
Stimulates pancreatic beta cell insulin release.
How does Xanax work?
Binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain, enhancing gaba effects.
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