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Intro to Research: Chapters 8-10
Terms in this set (62)
When we think our data illustrates a causal relationship but do not know what caused what (or which came first) this is called temporal precedence problem. This is also called ____________ ____________
When we have some categories with an average for people in each category we would run a ___ to show the probability that the differences are the result of chance
In association research, when the relationship between two variables changes depending on the level of another variable, that other variable is called a ___
A ____ is an association that involves exactly two variables
The word ____ is/has the same meaning as "arithemetical average"
When the people in an experiment understand the purpose of the experiment and change their behavior in the expected direction
Double blind study
When both the participants and the people running the experiment are unaware of the levels of the independent variable this is called.
Double-blind placebo control study
When both the participants and the people running the experiment are unaware of the levels of the independent variable and there is a neutral treatment this is called ______.
One-group pretest/post-test design
When an experiment measures the dependent variable before and after the treatment and the experiment contains only one group of people we call this a ________
When people receiving a neutral treatment shows changes in the dependent variable because of their faith in the effectiveness of that treatment we call this a _______ _______
When different groups of participants are placed into different levels of the dependent variable this type of experiment has two names: ____or_____.
When participants in an experiment give different measurements because of exposure to an earlier part of the experiment we call this a ______.
When participants in an experiment give different measurements because they become more skilled at completing a task related to the experiment we call this a ________.
When there is only a single group of respondents who are measured on the dependent variable at different points in time we call this a _______ design.
When there is only a single group of respondents who are measured on the dependent variable more than once at roughly the same point in time we call this a ______ design.
A ______ refers to a second variable that happens to vary systematically along with the intended independent and therefore is an alternative explanation of the results.
A _______ is a level of the independent variable that is intended to represent a "no treatment" group
Any variable that the experimenter holds constant on purpose is called a _________.
_______ means presenting levels of the independent variable to participants in different orders in order to cancel out potential order effects.
In an experiment the variable that is measured (i.e. is not the independent variable) is also called the _______.
In an experiment the levels or different conditions the participants are placed are values of the _________.
In order to achieve counterbalancing researchers sometimes use a grid design called a ______ to make sure they are balancing the participants across the different orders.
A _____ is an extra dependent variable that researchers insert into an experiment to help them quantify how well the experimental manipulation worked.
In a ____ design researchers measure the participants on a variable that might affect the outcome and then ensure the different groups have similar scores for that variable.
A ______ is a simple study, using a separate group of participants that is usually completed before a study to help plan the main study.
When participants are only measured once on the dependent variable at the end of the study we call this a ______ design.
_____ is the ability of a sample to show a statistically significant result when there is a real difference between groups.
Pretest / Posttest design
When participants are measured on the dependent variable at the start and end of the study we call this a ________.
A _____ is a type of confound, in which alternative explanations are related to the type of participants placed in each level of the independent variable.
_____ is a threat to the internal validity of an experiment. It means that some relevant aspect of the experiment changes in a predictable way according to the level of the independent variable.
Some studies have only a single group of participants who experience all the levels of the independent variable. This is called either a _____ or a ______ design.
(r = 0.91)
Which of the following options below indicates a strong positive correlation using the correct brief symbols?
third variable problem
An article is said to have good internal validity if it explains the relationship between two variables and there is no other explanation. If there is other data that explains the relationship we often call this a ________.
Correlation coefficients that are closer to -1 or 1 are said to have a larger _________.
The term ____________ shows the probability that a given set of numeric results would occur by chance. Lower values are better because they show numeric results are LESS LIKELY to happen by accident.
The word _________ describes a single data point that is far away from the other data points in a set of numeric results.
restriction of range
In a correlational study if there is a limit to the upper or lower values that can appear in the data, it can make the correlation coefficient appear smaller than it really is. We call this the __________ problem.
The relationship between a person's age and the number of doctor visits goes down as we move out of childhood and then goes up again when we are senior citizens. We call this type of association a __________ relationship.
If we discover that a significant relationship is really caused by another variable and decide the original relationship was not relevant we call it a ____________.
When using multiple regression, what is the term for the variable that the researcher is most interested in explaining or predicting?
When a third variable explains the relationship between two other variables, that kind of a third variable is called a:
Unlike r, beta reflects the independent contribution of the predictor variable, controlling for the contributions from the other predictor variables.
Which of the following is TRUE about the difference between beta and r?
There may be some other third variable.
A multiple-regression analysis is run to examine third variables as a follow-up to the study indicating that boys with unusual names are more likely to commit crimes. Unusual names, ethnic backgrounds, and geographical regions are all included as predictor variables. Even after controlling for all of these variables, unusual names still predict criminal activity. Why doesn't this study establish causation?
by ruling out third variables
How do multiple-regression designs help address internal validity?
What type of research design involves measuring the same variables, for the same people, across different points in time?
pattern and parsimony
What is it called when researchers investigate causality by using a variety of correlational studies that all point in a single, causal direction?
"made a difference in"
Which of the following phrases would NOT suggest that multiple regression was used?
Variable A at Time 1 is associated with Variable B at Time 2.
In a study in which two variables are measured at two different points in time, which of the following is an example of a cross-lag correlation?
When a relationship between two variables depends on the level of a third variable, that kind of a third variable is called a:
When a research student only records data from people at a single point in time we call this a _________ study.
In a longitudinal study we sometimes find that the value of a variable at an earlier time period is strongly associated with the value of same variable at a later time period. We call this ________.
Suppose that we have a regression model that predicts adult aggression levels from the number of hours of television violence the people watched as children. If we add gender (male / female) as an independent variable and the television violence variable has p-value less than 0.05 we can say that television violence is still significant when we ___________ gender.
Cara is running a study to examine the effect of music on mood. She randomly assigns participants to three conditions — rock, jazz, and country. She has the participants rate their mood with a short questionnaire, then listen to their assigned music for 20 minutes, and then fill out the mood questionnaire again. What kind of design is she using?
elimination of practice effects
Which of these is NOT an advantage of within-groups designs?
Extraneous differences are held constant across conditions.
Which of these is NOT a potential drawback of a within-groups design?
Which of the following does NOT need to be considered as an alternative explanation of the results in a within-groups design experiment?
manipulate one variable and measure another.
In an experiment, researchers:
How many possible orders for full counterbalancing are there in a study with four conditions?
A ____________ variable is a variable that is controlled such as when researchers assign participants to a particular level of the variable.
In an experiment, another name for the outcome variable is the _____ variable.
In an experiment a variable that experimenters deliberately hold constant is called a _________ variable.
A ___________ occurs in an experiment when the kinds of participants in one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those in the other levels.
Recommended textbook explanations
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C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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