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~Persia's king
~550 B.C. he began to conquer several neighboring kingdoms
~he was a military genius
~he led his army from victory to victory between 550 and 539 B.C.
~in time, he controlled an empire that spanned 2,000 miles from the Indus River in the east to Anatolia in the west


~Cambyses' successor, a noble of the ruling dynasty, had begun his career as a member of the king's bodyguard
~An elite group of Persian soldiers, the ten thousand immortals, helped Darius seize the throne around 522 B.C.
~he spent the first 3 years putting down revolts
~he brought peace and stability to the empire
~he was a great warrior, but his genius lay in administration


~Cyrus's son; expanded the Persian Empire by conquering Egypt


~a governor, ruled locally

Royal Road

~ran from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia, a distance of 1,677 miles


~a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle if fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil


~a religious system that competed with early Christianity for believers

The Persians built their empire on "_____ and ______."

Tolerance and diplomacy

Ancient Persia is today what country?


Name THREE minerals that could be mined in the Persian Empire.

Copper, lead, & gold

How large in area was Cyrus' empire?

2,000 miles

Describe what Cyrus would do at each conquered area's temple.

He would kneel there to pray

What's the tone of Cyrus' memorial?

It was very simple

Darius was unable to conquer what nation?


Describe how Darius organized his empire in an efficient way.

He divided it into 20 provinces

What's the "power" of a single currency?

People didn't have to weigh gold or silver anymore

How has Zoroaster's teaching been connected to monotheistic faiths?

Because he teaches the belief in one God.

Phillip II

~dreamed of taking control of Greece and then moving against Persia to seize its vast wealth
~hoped to avenge the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.
~in 359 B.C. he became the king of Macedonia
~he quickly proved to be a brilliant general and a ruthless politician
~at his daughter's wedding in 336 B.C. he was stabbed to death

Alexander the Great

~son of Philip
~proclaimed himself king after his father's death
~was only 20 years old
~he had learned science, geography, and literature
~he had learned to ride a horse, use weapons, and command troops at a young age


a kingdom located just north of Greece

Darius III

the Persian king


the Athenian orator


Persia's royal capital


became king of Macedonia and took control of the Greek city-states


seized Egypt, took title of pharaoh, and established a dynasty


took most of the old Persian Empire, which was the Seleucid kingdom

What war really weekend the Greek city-states?

The Peloponnesian War

Describe the topography of Macedonia.

Rough terrain and a cold climate

Why did Greeks look down on Macedonians?

Because they didn't have any great philosophers, sculptors, or writers

What was the main weapon that soldiers held in Phillip's phalanx?

An 18 foot pike

What happened to Philip at his daughter's wedding?

He was stabbed to death

How old was Alexander when he became king?

20 years old

What did Alexander keep under his pillow?

A copy of the Iliad

Describe Alexander's strategy at the Granicus River.

Instead of waiting for the Persians to make the first move, Alexander ordered his cavalry to attack

What did Alexander claim in 332 BC?


What Egyptian city did Alexander create?


Describe what happened in at Gaugamela?

The two armies met at Gaugamela. Alexander launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a cavalry charge.

By 326 BC, how far and for how long had Alexander's army been fighting?

They had been fighting for 11 years and had marched more than 11,000 miles


-in Teotihuacán, Central America
-the city's most valuable trade item
-a green or black volcanic glass
-found in the Valley of Mexico
-used to make razor-sharp weapons


-around 900, the Toltec's rose to power
-they ruled over the next 3 centuries, ruled over the heart of Mexico from their capital of Tula
-built pyramids and temples
-carved tall pillars in the shape of armed warriors
-were an extremely warlike people whose empire was based on conquest. They worshiped a fierce war god who demanded blood and human sacrifice from his followers

Triple Alliance

-in 1428, the Aztecs joined with two other city-states, Texcoco and Tlacopan
-this alliance became the leading power in the Valley of Mexico and soon gained control over neighboring regions
-by the early 1500s, they controlled a vast empire that
covered some 80,000 square miles stretching from central Mexico to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and south into Oaxaca
-it was divided into 38 provinces and had an estimated pop. between 5 and 15 million people
-they generally exercised loose control over the empire,
often letting local rulers govern their own regions

Montezuma II

-in 1502 he was crowned emperor
-under his rule, the Aztec Empire began to weaken
-Aztecs had been demanding tribute and sacrificial victims from the provinces under their control
-now, with the population of Tenochitilán growing ever greater, he called for even more tribute and sacrifice
-over time, he tried to lessen the pressure on the provinces, he reduced the demand for tribute payment by cutting the number of officials in the Aztec government


people who settled in the alley and developed advanced civilizations that controlled much of the area

Pyramid of the Sun

one of the 20 pyramids dedicated to various gods, was the biggest one


a different god that the Topiltzin tried to convince people to worship; also known as the Feathered Serpent


the god of the sun and warfare


a city founded in 1325; place on a small island

What was Teotihuacán's population at its height?

150,000 and 200,000

How do historians think that the city collapsed?

Either from an invasion by outside forces or conflict among the city's ruling classes

Describe where Aztec wealth came from?

Their wealth came from gold, maize, cacao beans, cotton, jade, and other products

Describe the Aztec power pyramid?

the emperor sat atop the Aztec social pyramid

Describe the marketplace (Tlatelolco) of Tenochtitlan.

it had a great deal of local agricultural produce on display including avocados, beans, chili peppers, corn, squash, and tomatoes

How was Quetzalcoatl visualized?

he was visualize as the Feathered Serpent

Describe how the sun was the center of their religious practices.

the sun god was the most important one. He made the sun rise and set everyday

Describe how much sacrifice played into their battlefield strategy.

they made sure that they took their opponents alive in battle so they could use them for sacrifice


~by the 1700s it was a kingdom
~its rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory
~by the year 800, Ghana had become an empire
~eventually, Ghana's rulers converted to Islam
~although the Almoravids eventually withdrew from Ghana, the war had badly disrupted the gold-salt trade and Ghana never regained its power


~emerged around 1235
~its founders were Mande-speaking people, who lived south of Ghana
~it's wealth was built on gold
~as Ghana remained weak, people who had been under its control began to act independently and minders found new gold deposits farther east
~this caused the most important trade routs to shift eastward, which made a new group of people -the people of Mali- wealthy


~Mali's first great leader
~came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader
~through a series of military victories, he took over the kingdom of Ghana and the trading cities of Kumbi and Walta; a period of peace and prosperity followed
~he proved to be as great a leader in peace as he had been in war; he put able administrators in charge of Mali's finances, defense, and foreign affairs
~he promoted agriculture and reestablished the gold-salt trade

Mansa Musa

~he may have been Sundiata's grandnephew; ruled from about 1312 to 1332
~he was a skilled military leader who exercised royal control over the gold-salt trade and put down every rebellion
~his 100,000-man army kept order and protected Mali from attack
~under his rule, the empire expanded to roughly twice the size of the Ghana empire
~to govern his far-reaching empire, he divided it into provinces and appointed governors, who ruled failry and efficiently

Ibn Battuta

~in 1352, one of Mansa Musa's successors prepared to receive a traveler and historian
~a native of Tangier in North Africa, had traveled for 27 years visiting most of the countries in the Islamic world
~after leaving the royal palace, he visited Timbuktu and other cities in Mali
~he found he could travel without fear of crime
~he left Mali in 1353


~as Mali declined in the 1400s, people who had been under its control began to break away
~they were one of these people, people to the east
~they built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger river near Gao
~they gained control of the all-important trade routs
~they had 2 extraordinary rulers, both of whom were Muslims


~were a group of people named after the language they spoke
~the city-states of the Hausa people first emerged between the years 1000 and 1200 in the savanna area east of Mali and Songhai in what today is northern Nigeria
~Songhai briefly ruled the Hausa city-states, but they soon regained their independence
~all the Hausa city-states had similar forms of government; rulers held great power over their subjects, but ministers and other officials acted to check this power
~the constant fighting among city-states prevented any one of them from building a Hausa empire


~all of the people spoke a common language
~Yoruba kings served as the most important religious and political leaders in their kingdoms
~all Yoruba chiefs traced their descent from the first ruler of Ife
~Ife and Oyo were the two largest Yoruba kingdoms.
~Ife, developed by 1100, was the most powerful Yoruba kingdom until the late 1600s, when Oyo became the most prosperous


~to the south and west of Ife, near the delta of the Niger River is this kingdom
~the people of Benin made their homes in the forest
~the first kings of Benin date form the 1200s
~the oba, or ruler, of Benin based his right to rule on claims of descent from the fist king of Ife
~in the 1400s, the oba named Ewuare made Benin into a major West African state by building a powerful army


the savanna region just south of the Sahara


the people that farmed through the savanna


the place where the Soninke farmed and where trade routes crossed




a trading city

Sunni Ali

an extraordinary leader of Songhai, built a vast empire by military conquest

Askia Muhammad

the leader of the revolt, a devoted Muslim

Why couldn't pack animals travel very far in West Africa?

because of harsh desert conditions, and because of no rest and water

What essential resource did West Africa lack?


What had Ghana become by 800 AD?

an empire

Describe how the Ghanaian king ruled his kingdom in 800.

he controlled trade and commanded a large army, he could demand taxes and gifts from the chiefs of surrounding lands

What three titles did the Ghanaian ruler possess?

religious leader, chief judge, and military commander

In the 11th century, Ghanaian rulers converted to what faith?


How was Sundiata a great leader in "peace as he had been in war?"

because he took over the kingdom of Ghana and the trading cities of Kumbi and Walata

In terms of military technology, explain the advancements of 9th century, 1304 and 1591.

a gun was built that shot arrows; gunpowder and cannons; swords and spears


~in different parts of Japan, people honored thousands of local gods
~their varied customs and beliefs eventually combinded to form Japan's earliest religion
~Shinto was based on respect for the forces of nature and on the worship of ancestors
~the worshipers believed in kami, divine spirits that dwelled in nature
~any unusual or especially beautiful tree, rock, waterfall, or mountain was considered the home of a kami


~by the A.D. 400s, the Yamato clan had established itself as the leading clan
~they claimed to be descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu
~by the 7th century, the Yamato chiefs called themselves the emperors of Japan
~the early emperors did not control the entire country, or even much of it, but the Japanese gradually accepted the idea of an emperor
~Japan had both an emperor who served as a figurehead and a ruling power who reigned behind the throne; this dual structure became an enduring characteristic of Japanese government


~since wars between rival lords were commonplace, each lord surrounded himself with a bodyguard of loyal warriors called samurai
~samurai means "one who serves"
~they lived according to a demanding code of behavior called Bushido or "the way of the warrior"
~they were expected to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness and generosity toward those weaker than himself
~dying an honorable death was judged more important than living a long life


strong tropical storms


divine spirits that dwelled in nature

The Tale of Genji

a classic work of Japanese literature


"the way of the warrior"; a demanding code of behavior


"supreme general of the emperor's army"


the shogun's military headquarters

Explain the etymology of the name Japan.

Comes from the Chinese word ri-ben, which means "origin of the sun" or "land of the rising sun"

How many islands make up the Japanese archipelago?

About 4,000

What are the four largest islands?

Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu

What % of Japanese land is suitable for farming?


During the 5th century, Japan had more and more contact with what continent?


Explain how Shinto and Buddhism "merged" in the 10th century Japan.

Some Buddhist rituals became Shinto rituals, and some Shinto gods and goddesses were worshiped in Buddhist temples

Why did Japan not adopt the Chinese civil service system?

Prince Shotoku planned a strong central government like that of the Tang rulers. He also tried to introduce China's civil-service system. However, this attempt failed. In Japan, noble birth remained the key to winning a powerful position.

How did noble "rules dictate every aspect of court life" in medieval Japan? [Include discussion of weaponry and wardrobe.]

Gentlemen and ladies of the court filled their days with elaborate ritual and artistic pursuits. Rules dictated every aspect of court life- the length of swords, the color of official robes, and forms of address, even the number of skirts a woman wore. Etiquette was also extremely important. Laughing aloud in public was frowned upon.

St. Francis of Assisi

~an Italian
~founded another order of friars, the Franciscans
~he treated all creatures, including animals, as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters
~in 1212, a woman named Clare and her friend Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan order for women
~It was known as the Poor Clares


~in the early 1100s, this new style of architecture evolved throughout medieval Europe
~the term Gothic comes from a Germanic tribe named the Goths
~unlike the heavy, gloomy Romanesque bu9ldings, Gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven
~light streamed in through huge stained glass windows; other arts of the medieval world were evident around or in the Gothic cathedral- sculpture, wood-carvings and stained glass windows
~All of these elements were meant to inspire the worshiper with the magnificence of God


~"holy war"
~they gained control of the Holy Land
~over the next 300 years, a number of such Crusades were launched
~the crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives
~kings and the Church both saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who fought each other


~to a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader
~the Crusaders' states were extremely vulnerable to Muslim counterattack
~in 1144, Edessa was reconquered by the Turks
~The Second Crusade was organized to recapture the city
~But its armies straggled home in defeat; in 1187, Europeans were shocked to learn that Jerusalem itself had fallen to a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader

Richard the Lion-Hearted

~The Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem was led by three of Europe's most powerful monarchs.
~Philip II of France, German emperor Frederick I, and Richard
~he was an English king
~he was left to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin
~he was a brilliant warrior

Children's Crusade

~took place in 1212
~in two different movements, thousands of children set out to conquer Jerusalem
~one group in France was led by 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes
~an estimated 30,000 children under 18 joined him
~in Germany, Nicholas of Cologne gathered about 20,000 children and young adults

"Dark Age"

the period in Western Europe between 500 and 1000


a place in France


Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice

Lay investiture

kings appointed church bishops

Canon law

the law of the church


a tax for the support of the church and clergy


the style between 800 and 1100; had round arches and a heavy foot held up by thick walls and pillars

Urban II



the long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain


a court held by the Church to suppress heresy

Why would the Catholic Church be alarmed at frustrated with so many priests marrying?

Because it was against Church rulings

What was the difference between a friar and a monk?

Like monks, friars took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience; unlike monks, friars did not live apart from the world in monasteries; friars owned nothing and lived by begging

Explain the social, economic, political and religious goals of the Crusades.

in the later Crusades, merchants profited by making cash loans to finance the journey; according to the pop, those who died on Crusade were assured of a place in heaven

Where in Europe were the Crusaders from?

France, Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, and Spaniards

What happened on 7/15/1099?

The Crusaders captured the city

What was the effect of the Crusades on European merchants?

Expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia

What was the effect of the Crusades on the Muslim populations?

It worsened Muslim leadership

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