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Terms in this set (180)
A child typically enters the mental health system___.
a) by asking for a referral from a pediatrician
b) through teachers, counselors, or parents
c) through the criminal justice system
d) by the actions, positive or negative, of peers
b) Through teachers, counselors, or parents
A risk factor is a variable that___.
a) indicates positive outcomes
b) follows a negative outcome
c) increases the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur
d) decreases the likelihood that negative outcome will occur
c) increases the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur
Conduct disorder may arise from different developmental pathways, a concept known as___.
In contrast to adults, abnormality in children is often defined in terms of ___.
stage of development
Interventions for children and adolescents are often intended to __.
eliminate distress and promote further development.
Many child and adolescent problems can be best described as the ___.
failure to demonstrate expected developmental progress
Most problematic behaviors shown by children are ___.
shown to some degree by most children
Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms that are associated with ___.
Resiliency in boys is best associated with households in which there are:
male role models, structure, and encouragement of emotional expressiveness
To determine a child's competencies, it is useful to have some knowledge of ___.
what concept states that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings such as child maltreatment?
What is the purpose of an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP)?
to tailor the child's school program to his or her needs
Which is an example of resiliency?
Freud was the first to link mental disorders to ___.
early childhood experiences
The ability to successfully adapt in the environment is referred to as ___.
The development of ___ treatment can be traced back to the rise of behaviorism in the early 1900s.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; Public Law 104-446) mandates ___.
education in the least restrictive environment possible
A central tenet of developmental psychopathology is that to understand maladaptive behavior, we must consider ___.
what is normative for a given period of development
A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ___.
A child's problems must be considered in relation to the influence of the ___.
community/culture, individual, family
ABA involves the examination of ___.
behavior, antecedents, and consequences
Bronfenbrenner's (1977) model includes a consideration of the ___.
child, family members, and society in which the child lives
Children's early caretaking experiences play an important role in designing parts of the brain that involve___.
emotion, personality, and behavior
Today's research and thinking accepts the notion that many childhood disorders:
share many clinical features and causes
Which term describes a child's model of relationships in terms of what the child expects from others and how the child relates to others?
internal working model
Etiology refers to the ___ of childhood disorders.
An assessment tool that actually measures the construct it is intended to measure can be considered ___.
Asking college students to describe their childhood relationships with peers is an example of a ___ design.
Because there is no one correct approach to research, most problems in abnormal child psychology are best studied by using ___.
multiple methods and strategies
Children who receive treatment are ___.
better off than children who do not receive treatment
Emily's mother was asked to complete a behavior checklist on two separate occasions several weeks apart. The results yielded from both occasions were very similar. The behavior checklist can be said to be:
Factors such as SES, child's age, and cultural background affect the ___ of symptoms and disorders.
rate and expression
In research terms, research questions about behavior that follow from a theory are called ___.
In ___ research, different individuals at different ages or stages of development are studied at the same point in time.
In ___ research, the same individuals are studied at different ages/stages of development.
Participation in research is done through direct informed consent except when the participants are ___.
Qualitative data are typically collected by ___.
open-ended interviewing and observations
Research procedures that may harm a child physically or psychologically should ___.
never be used
The degree to which findings can be generalized to children, settings, times, measure, and characteristics other than the one in a particular study is referred to as ___.
The overlapping or co-occurrence of disorders is called ___.
Treatment ___ refers to whether or not a treatment can produce changes under well-controlled conditions.
___ evaluate treatment outcomes for children who are unsystematically assigned to treatment and control conditions
Randomized controlled trials
___ increases the chance that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.
___ means that the child shows some form of agreement to participate in research without necessarily understanding the full significance of the research.
A clearly defined group used to compare an individual child's test score against is called a:
A leading checklist for assessing behavioral problems in children and adolescents is the ___.
Child Behavior Checklist
A ___ case formulation emphasizes general inferences that apply to broad groups of individuals.
An advantage of behavior checklists over interviews is that checklists allow a clinician to ___ while interviews typically do not
compare results to a reference sample
Best practice guidelines take into consideration ___.
expert and evidence-based approaches
Minimum ethical standards for practice include:
protecting the confidentiality of the therapeutic relationship
The detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity is referred to as a ___ case formulation
The most commonly used intelligence scale today is the ___.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)
The most universally used assessment procedure with parents and children is ___.
the clinical interview
The primary purpose of assessment is to ___.
treat individual symptoms
The relationship between assessment and intervention is best viewed as ___.
related and ongoing
The Rorschach Test is an example of a ___ test.
When working with children and families, cultural information is most needed to ___.
establish a relationship with the child and family
Which psychological condition is more common among females than males?
___ approach to treatment view child psychopathology as the result of faulty thought patterns and faulty learning and environmental experiences.
Gathering information about a child's behavior for analysis involves ___.
observing the child in real life settings
Children with intellectual disability have a greater chance of having ___.
Down syndrome occurs more often with older mothers than younger mother because ___.
chromosomal nondisjunction increases with maternal age
During the eugenics movement, persons with intellectual disability were considered ___.
a threat to society
In general, children with down syndrome display ___.
significant gains in adaptive behaviors up to age 6, followed by a leveling off or decline
In the DSM-5, the level of disability, reflecting a child's degree of difficulty, is based upon the ___.
extent of cognitive impairment
Many persons with Down syndrome function at the ___ level of disability.
Phenylketonuria is a ___ that can cause intellectual disability of untreated.
inborn error of metabolism
Self-instructional training programs are most beneficial for ___ children with no language skills.
Children with some language proficiency, but who have trouble understanding and following direction
Subaverage intellectual functioning is defined as an IQ approximately ___.
two standard deviations below the mean
The gene-environment interaction as referred to as ___.
The majority of individuals with intellectual disabilities have ___ impairment
The more severe forms of intellectual disability are more likely due to ___ causes than is mild intellectual disability
The ___ argues that cognitive development of children with intellectual disability differs from that of children without intellectual disability is more ways than merely differences in developmental rate and upper limit
When mainstreamed into a regular classroom, children with intellectual disability ___.
end up being socially isolated because other children do not play with them
Which of the following is not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Which psychiatric diagnosis is least common among children with intellectual disability?
___ is critical to regulating social interaction and providing a foundation for early self/other understanding
internal state language
___ is the most common form of intellectual disability resulting from chromosomal abnormalities.
____ factors are implicated in mild forms of intellectual disability.
genetic and enviornmental
To be labeled with intellectual disability, below average intellectual and adaptive abilities must be ___.
present before age 18
A child with intellectual disability but not ASD would more likely display ___.
general delays across all areas of intellectual functioning on the WISC-IV
Children with ASD and language development are most likely to show deficits in ___.
spontaneous social conversation
Children with ASD are most likely to use ___.
Children with ASD may engage in self-stimulatory behavior because ___.
they crave stimulation, and self-stimulation serves to excite their nervous systems
Children with schizophrenia may be treated with ___ to diminish psychotic symptoms
Current views regarding the causes of schizophrenia emphasize ___.
genetic vulnerability and early neurodevelopmental insults
Leo Kanner used the term early infantile autism., which literally means ___.
Some studies have indicated the effectiveness of ___ in comparison to other treatments for ASD
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children be screened as ASD at ___.
18 months and 24 months
The cognitive deficit most specific to children with ASD is ___.
deficient theory of mind
The deficits of ASD become increasingly noticeable___.
around 2 years of age
The extreme male brain theory of ASD suggests that___.
autistic brains are more "systemizing"
The most common presenting symptom for children with childhood-onset schizophrenia is ___.
The primary language deficit of children with ASD (who develop language) is ___.
The rise in prevalence of ASD is most likely due to ___.
stricter guidelines for diagnosis
The tendency to focus on certain types of sensory input over others is called sensory ___.
The theory of mind hypothesis of ASD suggests that children with ASD ___.
do not understand others' mental states
Which statement about ASD is true?
ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder
Which statement about gender differences in ASD is true?
ASD is more common in boys, except among those with profound ID, where the numbers of boys and girls are similar.
___ has been associated with ASD more than any other genetically based condition
To see if a child has phonological awareness, a teacher might ___.
ask the child to rhyme words
A child diagnosed with a learning disorder would typically score ___.
better on IQ tests than on tests of academic achievement
A child with a mathematics disorder would most likely have difficulty with ___.
By mid to late adolescence, most children with communication disorders ___.
have acquired normal language
By the early school-age years, which communication disorder is most prevalent?
Children with learning disorders are likely to also have ___.
trouble balancing an overactive social life with school
Decoding can be described as ___.
breaking a word into parts rapidly enough to read the whole word.
Deficits in ___ are a chief reason that most children with communication and learning disorders have problems in learning to read and spell
For some children, recurrent ___ during the first year of life may be related to speech and language delays.
Nonverbal learning disabilities are deficits related to ___.
functional abnormalities in the right hemisphere
Shaywitz and Shaywitz (2002) found that the brains of dyslexic children compared to nonimpaired children had ___.
lower activation primarily in the left hemisphere
Studies investigating the causes of communication disorders suggest that ____.
there is an interaction of genetic influences, slowness of brain maturation and possible minor brain lesions.
The most common learning disorder is in ___.
The most common underlying feature associated with reading disorders is ___.
distinguishing or separating sounds in spoken words
Which disorder is determined by achievement test results that are substantially below what is expected for the child's age, schooling, and intellectual ability?
specific learning disorder
Which factor is least likely to lead to increased resiliency and adaptation in children with learning disorders?
clear consequences for when mistakes are made
Which is an appropriate treatment for children who stutter?
contingency management procedures
Which of the following is a category of learning disorders?
Which statement about the causes of stuttering is true?
a combination of genetic and environmental factors seem to cause the abnormal development
____ education strategies are based on the premise that children with special needs will benefit from associating with normally developing peers.
ADHD is included in DMS-5 as a ___ disorder because it has a ___.
neurodevelopment; early onset and persistent course
An educational intervention for ADHD may include ___.
giving written and oral instructions in the claassroom
Children with ADHD generally___.
want to do well but have difficulty due to limited self-control
Recently, the symptoms that have been emphasized as the central impairments of ADHD are ___.
difficulty inhibiting behavior and poor self-regulation
Research into casual factors provides strong evidence for ADHD as a disorder with ___ determinants.
Stimulant medications work by ___.
altering neurotransmitter activity in the frontostriatal region of the brain (stimulating areas that are underaroused)
The higher incidence of ADHD in boys versus girls is most likely due to ___.
societal expectations and acceptance
The mental processes underlying children's capacity for self-regulating are called___.
To date, ____ has focused mainly on teaching parents to manage the overt disruptive behaviors that accompany their child's ADHD, rather than on changing the deficits underlying the child's ADHD.
parent management training
What were the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA Study)?
Three years after the conclusion of the treatment, only the medication management group continued to benefit from treatment.
When is a child with ADHD likely to display more motor activity than other children?
when asked to sit still at his desk
When Jessica sits down to do her homework and study, she is easily distracted by the television in another room. Jessica demonstrates a deficit in ___.
?? I don't know the question
Differences in the prevalence of ADHD across cultures may reflect cultural norms
Which of the following is an additional criterion for a diagnosis of ADHD?
symptoms must produce significant impairments in the child's social or academic performance.
Which of the following is most likely to cause ADHD?
No single theory has been able to identify a cause
Children who engage in covert behaviors only are typically___.
less social, more anxious, and more suspicious of others
Children who engage in primarily overt behaviors are typically:
negative, irritable, and resentful in their reactions to hostile situations
Which of the following is a characteristic of cognitive problem-solving skills training (PSST) for conduct problems?
teaching parents contingency management techniques
Which of the following is true regarding antisocial behavior in adolescents?
Very few adolescents completely refrain from antisocial behavior and they tend not to be well-adjusted.
Which of the following is true regarding gender differences in antisocial behavior?
Boys are more aggressive than girls in childhood, but this difference decreases or disappears by adolescence.
Which statement is true regarding the relationship between conduct problems and self-esteem?
Conduct problems are related to an inflated, unstable, or tentative self-esteem.
___ describes children who display an age-inappropriate recurrent pattern of stubborn, hostile, and defiant behaviors
oppositional defiant disorder
___ describes children who display severe aggressive and antisocial acts involving inflicting pain on others or interfering with others' rights
Compared to boys' aggression, girls' aggression tends to involve more ___.
relationally aggressive acts
Elizabeth's parents, teachers, and probation officer met to discuss treatment strategies for Elizabeth's aggressive and criminal behavior. What treatment modality is this?
In high-risk neighborhoods, ___ can protect against the development of antisocial behavior.
a positive school experience
The earliest signs of antisocial behavior may be ___.
difficult temperament as an infant
The single most powerful predictor of conduct problems in adolescence is ____.
the combination of early antisocial behavior and involvement with deviant peers
Which of the following is a characteristic of parent management training for conduct problems?
teaching contingency management techniques
Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between ODD and CD?
CD is almost always preceded by ODD
Bipolar disorder appears to be the result of ___.
a genetic vulnerability in combination with environmental factors
In general, ___ is the first choice in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
Someone who focuses narrowly on negative events for long periods of time has a:
depressive ruminative style
The diathesis-stress model of depression explains the onset of the disorder as ___.
dependent upon the interaction between personal vulnerability and life stress
The increase in depression from childhood to adolescence appears to be largely a result of ___.
The increase in depression in young people has been attributed, at least in part, to:
rapid social change leading to increased stress levels for young people
The most efficacious preventative intervention for children at risk for depression is ___.
The most frequent co-occurring disorder(s) in clinic referred youngsters with major depressive disorder is/are ___.
The single best predictor of a child's risk for Major Depressive Disorder is ___.
family history of depression
Which of the following is true regarding gender differences in the prevalence of depression among males and females?
Depression is equally common among preadolescent boys and girls, but after about age 13 the rate is higher for females.
Which symptom interferes with normal youth development of interpersonal relationships?
___ are the negative perceptual and attributional styles and beliefs associated with depressive symptoms.
___ is one of the most common symptoms of depression in children, occurring in about 80% of clinic-referred youngsters with depression
The absence of joy and interest in activities that were previously enjoyable is called ___.
The most stressful treatment/s for major depressive disorder is/are ____.
CBT and IPT-A
Children with a behavioral inhibition temperament may be less likely to develop a later anxiety disorder if ___.
their parents set firm limits that teach them how to cope with stress
Compulsions involving counting over and over to a certain number are frequently related to a concern about ___.
Females are ___ than males to experience anxiety symptoms
twice as likely
For a child whose obsession is cleanliness, the accompanying compulsion is likely to be:
For many children, fear of school is really a fear of what?
leaving your parents
One of the most common anxiety disorders of childhood is ___.
separation anxiety disorder (SAD)
Selective mutism is believed to be a type of ___.
The most effective procedure for treating most anxiety disorders is ___.
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
The most effective treatment of a child's phobia of riding in a car would involve which final step?
actually riding in a car
The onset of first panic attack is often related to ___.
The parenting style most often associated with anxiety disorders in children is one in which parents are overly ___.
To be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, a child must exhibit___.
an inability to control worry
To date, the strongest evidence for the effectiveness of medication to treat anxiety disorders in children and adolescents is for ___.
What is the intention of compulsions?
to reduce anxiety
___ is group of physical symptoms of the fight/flight response that unexpectedly occur in the absence of any obvious threat or danger.
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