Chapter 7: DNA Fingerprinting

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid
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A-T C-GName the 'complementary' base pairs (you may abbreviate)double helix (ladder)What shape is a molecule of DNA?They are referred to as the backbone of DNA. They are made up of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules.What are the sides of the helix called and made of?nuclear DNADNA in chromosomes is called what?1. It's only inherited from the mother. 2. No mitochondrial come from the sperm cell.How is Mitochondria DNA different from nuclear DNA? List two ways.the human genomeThe total amount of DNA in a cell is called what?3 billionHow many base pairs make up the human genome?ExonsRegions of encoded DNA, with directions to build molecules are called what?IntronsRegion of un-encoded DNA, that do not code for the production of molecules but are useful in forensic science are called what?intronsWhere are the variations in DNA found?They are the non-coded DNA segments that contain unique patterns of repeated base sequences that that are unique to individuals.What are Polymorphisms?as a pattern of bandsHow do polymorphisms appear on a DNA fingerprint?The Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) are 9 to 80 bases in length. Short Tandem Repeats (STR) are 2 to 5 bases in length.What are the two types of repeating DNA sequences? How many bases does each contain?An STR is preferred because its much shorter than a VNTR.Which type of repeating DNA sequence is preferred for DNA fingerprinting and why?Its when you compare DNA evidence from a crime scene with DNA taken from a suspect.What is tissue matching?Its when you compare family members' DNA for proof of familial relationships.What is inheritance matching?It stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It's a technique that makes thousands of copies of segments of DNA that investigators want to analyze. Its necessary because it can make a DNA fingerprint.What does PCR stand for? What is it? Why is it necessary for trace evidence?DNA polymeraseWhat enzyme is used in PCR?denaturation, annealing, and extensionWhat three processes are repeated many times during PCR?1. Wear disposable gloves and change them often 2. Use disposable instruments for handling each sample 3. Avoid talking, coughing, or sneezing over evidence 4. Do not touch your face or body when collecting or packaging evidence 5. Air dry evidence before packaging. If evidence cannot be dried, it may be frozen 6. Avoid using plastic bags to store evidence that contains DNA; use paper bags or envelopes 7. Keep evidence cool and dry during transportation and storage. Avoid direct sunlight which can damage DNA.Describe what must be done to avoid DNA evidence contamination at a crime sceneBy using restriction enzymesHow does a scientist cut DNA into fragments?RFLPs, Restriction Fragment Length PolymorphismsWhat are the small DNA fragments formed from cutting called?electrophoresisWhat technique separates RFLPs according to their length, creating a DNA Fingerprint?smallWhat size DNA fragments travel farther- big or small?positive endDoes DNA move to the negative or positive end of the electrophoresis chamber?to compare the different onesWhat is the purpose of Marker or Standard DNA?CODIS, Combined DNA Index SystemWhat is the name and abbreviation of the United States' Electronic database of DNA profiles?