Chapter 14-Social Psychology
Terms in this set (44)
Mental categories our brain uses to quickly make judgement about our surroundings in order to save processing power. At their most basic level they help us to assess our approach of stimuli, and more complex ones can infer personality characteristics of people around us or how we should act.
The thoughts we have about the stimuli in our environment, which typically arise when a schema is activated.
Social Cognitive Biases
A reliance on schemas to make assumptions about social situations. They are often incomplete because they do not take into account numerous other influential factors.
An assumption of why a person is acting the way they do.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attributing a person's behavior to what we assume to be his or her personality rather than factors outside of that individual.
In order to maintain a positive view of ourselves we tend to take credit for our successes and blame failures on situational factors. In other words, we rely on the schema that we are generally skilled, capable, and good intentioned.
Connecting with others you identify with in some way.
A group with which an individual is affiliated, that is, they identify with and believe they are a part of that group.
A group an individual believes he or she is not a part of or affiliated in some way.
The tendency to favor in-groups and undervalue out-groups.
Believing our in-groups are better than out-groups and favoring those in-groups through actions or thoughts.
Accepting positive aspects of our in-group despite evidence contradicting these positive beliefs.
Feeling interested or drawn to another person. It can manifest itself through an individual's characteristics or social standing.
Self-evaluation by comparison to others.
The assumption that members of a particular out-group are "homogeneous", or very similar to each other.
Assumptions that members of a particular out-group share certain characteristics or behaviors.
The tendency to make assumptions about a person based on a single characteristic. This is best understood not in a religious sense but in terms of light.
Negative attitudes stemming from stereotypes.
Intergroup Contact Theory
A theory that states prejudice is based on a lack of information and more contact between groups will lead to greater understanding and less prejudice.
Negative actions stemming from stereotypes.
One of two paths to changing an attitude; this route of attitude change attempts to intervene on beliefs that are not very strong.
One of two paths to changing an attitude; this route of attitude change attempts to intervene on core beliefs.
A feeling of obligation arising from the notion that we are in debt to someone when they do something for us.
A conscious effort to get someone to like us. This effort can take many forms, like complementing someone or acting more enthusiastic about their interests than you really are.
Actively managing the way you believe others perceive you.
Actively monitoring others' reactions and adjusting your actions to change the way you believe they perceive you.
The pressure we feel to behave in ways which are in concert with our attitudes or beliefs or to behave in ways we know others expect us to behave.
When an individual's attitudes and beliefs are not aligned.
Observing our behavior and inferring what our attitudes are based on the way we've acted.
Obtaining a small commitment in order to later achieve a larger request.
Making a large, often irrational, request in order to make the smaller request that follows seem much more reasonable.
A reaction to fight outside influences we believe are attempting to undermine the authority we have over our own thoughts and behaviors
An attempt to influence people by conveying the notion that something is rare, valuable, or will not always be available.
A performance boost stemming from the presence of other people-driven by feeling the need to perform well in front of others.
A decrease in performance stemming from the presence of others; when an individual performs worse because of perceived social pressures.
Diffusion of Responsibility
When responsibilities for a task within a group are unclear, and the success or failure of that group cannot be connected to any particular person's performance.
The tendency for group to agree, resulting from conformity from individuals within that group who may hold a different view.
The tendency for group members to become more rigid in their views when faced with a countering view from other group members.
When groups make riskier decisions than any individual group member may make on their own, often resulting from diffusion of responsibility.
A loss of individual identity within a group of people, which can lead to a disconnect with values and uncharacteristic behavior.
You are more likely to be aggressive when something makes you frustrated.
A specific type of schema that tells us how to behave in situations we've encountered before.
Helping others without expecting a tangible, social, or psychological reward.
When a group of people are called to action a diffusion of responsibility occurs, and no one acts due to the belief that others will.