Psych Chapter 12- Disorders
Terms in this set (39)
A general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, therapy refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living.
The relationship between the therapist and the client, with both parties working together to help the client deal with mental or behavioral issues.
Therapy based on psychological principles (rather than on the biomedical approach); often called 'psychotherapy'.
Treatment that focuses on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery or electroconvulsive therapy.
Individual who has received on-the-job training (and, in some cases, undergraduate training) in mental health treatment in lieu of graduate education and full professional certification.
Psychotherapy in which the therapist helps the patient/client understand (gain insight into) his or her problems.
The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal of psychoanalysis is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious.
Analysis of Transference
The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient's relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient's past.
Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theory
Therapy for a mental disorder that was developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud's ideas but disagreed with others.
Treatment technique based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others.
A humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual's tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization.
Reflection of Feeling
Carl Roger's technique of paraphrasing the clients' words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed.
Emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorder.
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time. Group therapy is often done from a humanistic perspective.
Self-Help Support Groups
Groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems. Such groups are typically organized and run by laypersons, rather than professional therapists.
Another term for Behavior Therapy.
Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus.
A form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus).
As a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counterconditioning involves presenting the individual with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant (aversive) stimulation to condition a repulsive reaction.
An operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior.
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of "tokens" or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. The tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforcers.
A social learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
A newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis's brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders.
Positive Psychotherapy (PPT)
A relatively new form of cognitive-behavioral treatment that seeks to emphasize growth, health, and happiness.
A person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification.
Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by effects on the dopamine pathways in the brain.
An incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs.
Medicines that treat depression, usually by their effects on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain.
A category of medicines that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
Drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain. Stimulants, however, have been found to suppress activity level in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
The general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure; sometimes called "Shock Treatment."
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
A treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain. Unlike ECT, TMS does not produce a seizure.
The policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals.
Community Mental Health Movement
An effort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics. Proponents of community mental health envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes.
A therapeutic approach that involves both psychological and medical techniques - most often a drug therapy with a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Empirically Supported Treatment (EST)
Treatment regimen that has been demonstrated to be effective through research. Also called empirically supported therapies.