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Pain Management Final Exam
Terms in this set (36)
What is the gold standard of pain assessment in children over the age of 4?
What are the 6 parameters of the Riley Infant Pain Scale?
2. Body Movement
6. Response to Movement/Touch
What visual pain scale is better for younger children because of its vertical orientation?
What visual pain scale has cartoon faces with pain rating from 0, no hurt, to 5, hurts most?
Wong Face Scale
What are 3 non-pharmacologic pain interventions for infants?
What are 3 non-pharmacologic pain interventions for older children?
3. Cutaneous Stimulation
Approximately ___% of people over the age of 65 have arthritis.
As people age, there are changes in function of ___________________ fibers with a greater reliance of _________ fibers.
A Delta; C
The chemical cascade leads to what 3 outcomes?
1. Increased membrane permeability
2. Inhibits hyperpolarization
3. Facilitates the release of other neuropeptides and neurotransmitters
What term refers the the surrounding tissue of an injury becoming sensitized to additional stimuli?
The interneuron releases _______________ which are thought to pre-synaptically to inhibit the release of substance P.
What are the 2 main ascending tracts of the nervous system involving pain?
1. Spinothalamic Tract
2. Spinoreticulothalamic Tract
The most important structure in the descending modulation of pain is the ___________________ _________ ___________.
Periaqueductal Gray Matter
What are the 3 components of an evaluation of pain?
1. Description of Pain
2. Patient's Response to Pain
3. Impact of Pain
What are the 7 multi-dimensions of pain?
1. Mental State
5. Previous Experience
6. Sensitivity of the Tissue
7. Actual amount of Trauma
What are the 3 components of describing pain?
Whose definition of chronic pain is "Pain that persists a month beyond the usual time for an acute disease or injury to resolve"?
Whose definition of chronic pain is "pain that's duration lasts more than 6 months"?
Whose definition of chronic pain is "Pain that did not respond to appropriate medical or surgical treatment"?
What are the 7 behavioral changes seen in chronic pain patients?
1. Sleep disturbances
2. Lack of energy
6. Decreased pain tolerance for acute injuries
7. Change in eating habits
What are the 5 psychological aspects seen in chronic pain patients?
4. Substance abuse
5. Withdrawal from relationships
What are the 3 economic/occupational factors seen in chronic pain patients?
1. Loss of Self-Esteem
2. Loss of Income
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has classified pain treatment facilities into what 4 different types?
1. Multidisciplinary Pain Centers
2. Multidisciplinary Pain Clinics
3. Pain Clinics
4. Modality-oriented clinics
The purpose of a multi-disciplinary pain management program is to minimize pain by attacking it from what 4 approaches?
The use of medications are common and important for patients with (Acute/Chronic) pain.
What term is the reduction in physiological response to a drug after repeated administration?
What term is a physiological problem in which a withdrawal syndrome will develop if the drug is suddenly withdrawn?
What term is the compulsive search for and use of the drug for reasons other than the intended medical indication, A.K.A. an addiction?
What types of medication act to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and include Aspirin & Ibuprofen?
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
What is the most commonly used local anesthetic to block peripheral nerves?
What medications are prescribed to reduce muscle spasms and include Baclofen, Soma, and Flexeril?
What medications are prescribed specifically for neuropathic pain and includes Gabapentin (neurontin)?
What are the 2 types of Anti-Depressants?
1. Tri-Cyclic Anti-Depressants
2. "Newer" Anti-Depressants
What are the 4 components of pain behaviors?
1. Verbal response (moaning, sighing)
2. Non-verbal pain behaviors (grimacing, rubbing, limping, wearing splint or brace)
3. General activity level (resting, lying down)
4. Use of pain medication
What term is the voluntary production and presentation of false, or a gross exaggeration of, physical or psychological symptoms, produced in pursuit of a goal, it is obvious and recognizable and is relatively rare?
What term is a conscious or unconscious self destructive, socially reinforced, behavioral response pattern, consisting of reports or displays of symptoms which function to control the life circumstances of the sufferer?
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