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58 terms

Psychology Test 2 (Book Practice Quizzes)

STUDY
PLAY
working
The self-concept that you have in mind at a given time is referred to as a _________ self-concept.
dejection
According to Higgens, a discrepancy between the actual self and the ideal self is most likely to trigger the emotion of _____________.
interactions, temperament
Self-guide preference appear to be rooted in parent-child ____________ and individual's _____________.
social context
____________ affects self concept in the following ways:
-how people think and feel about others
-less self-conscious in some situations
-a situation can indirectly affect self-concept
individualism
______________ involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
collectivist
Your friend Tyra has decided to postpone starting business school for two years in order to help her family operate their small hardware store during her dad's illness. She is exhibiting a characteristic behavior of persons from a(n) ________ culture.
causal
When interpreting the results of research on self-esteem, one must keep in mind that one cannot draw _________ conclusions regarding self-esteem based on the research.
sociometer theory
The ____________ suggest that self-esteem is a subjective measure of one's interpersonal popularity and success.
authoritarian
Ted's mother wears a t-shirt that says "Because I'm your mom, that's why!" She is usually critical of her son and his friends, and only rarely allows him to give his opinion in family decision-making. Ted's mom is exhibiting the traits associated with the ________ parenting style.
self-attributions
____________ are the inferences that people make about what causes their behavior.
pessimistic
People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a ____________ explanatory style.
self-improvement
Advertisers of personal care products are tapping into the _______ motive.
situational factors
The tendency to attribute one's failures to ________________ is consistent with the self-serving bias.
self-efficacy
All of the following are sources of ____________:
-soliciting encouragement and advice from others
-mastering new skills
-watching others perform a skill one wants to learn
attribution
An __________ is an inference about the causes of behavior.
external
Explaining your friend's poor performance on a test by suggesting that the test was unfair exemplifies the ___________ type of attribution.
classroom
The best-known experiments on the self-fulfilling prophecy have been conducted in ____________ settings.
stereotypes
All of the following are reasons why ____________ persist:
-confirmation bias
-self-fulfilling prophecy
-cognitive functionality
stereotypes
The tendency for people to see what they expect to see helps to perpetuate _______________.
primacy effect
The fact that first impressions have a powerful influence on perceptions of others is most consistent with the concept of the _______________.
prejudice
___________ is defined as a negative attitude toward some group.
prejudice
All of the following are considered to be contributors to racial __________:
-the fundamental attribution error
-stereotyping
-defensive attribution
jigsaw classroom
An example of applying intergroup contact as a means for reducing prejudice is the "____________."
trustworthy
Persuasion is most likely to be successful when the source of the persuasive communication is perceived as _______________.
social pressure
Conformity occurs when people change their behavior in response to real or imagined __________________.
go along with
Asch found that group size had little influence on group conformity if just one accomplice failed to ____________ the rest of the group.
situational pressures
The important conclusion from Milgram's study of obedience is that ___________________ can cause good people to do bad things.
behave consistently
Researchers think that the reason the food in the door technique is effective is that people have a tendency to ___________________.
lowball technique
The ____________ involves getting someone to commit to an attractive deal before revealing its hidden costs.
decode
In interpersonal communication, speaker is to encode as receiver is to ____________.
nonverbal communication
When you and your friend make faces at eachother during a class lecture it is an example of ___________________.
public
According to Edward Hall, people who interact at distances of 12 feet and beyond are considered to be in the ________ distance zone.
emotions
Basic ___________ are designated as such because the facial expressions associated with them are recognized across world cultures.
status
Gender patterns in eye contact are most likely to be confounded by ___________.
kinesics
The study of communication through body movement is called _____________.
anxiety
Anna is speaking rapidly to Steve as she asks him out to lunch. Her paralanguage most likely conveys ________ in this situation.
emotion detector
_________________ is the most accurate description of the polygraph machine.
communication avoidance
_________________ is the most common response to communication apprehension.
ego conflict
____________ is the type of conflict that is the most difficult to manage.
avoidance
Lauren hates it when Eric leaves the cap off the toothpaste, but she's never told him this, because she doesn't want to "make a scene." Besides, she hopes he'll get better on his own. Lauren's behavior exemplifies which of the following styles of managing conflict?
competition
Which style of managing conflict tends to become a black and white, win or lose confrontation?
status
You're the boss. You have a relatively minor conflict with a subordinate. An effective way to manage this situation is to try to set the difference in __________ aside.
interpersonal
Collectivist societies place a higher value on ____________ harmony than assertiveness.
chronic
Cancer, heart disease, and stroke are all considered __________ diseases.
chronic diseases
The greatest threat to health in our society today is posed by _____________.
decreased
Studies of the immune system in humans have found that stress is related to ________ levels of immune activity.
correlational
Virtually all of the research on stress and physical health in humans is ________________.
smoking
___________has been shown to increase the risk of such diseases as lung cancer, arteriosclerosis, and emphysema.
15
Health risks after quitting smoking decline until they reach a normal level after about ____ years.
20
ypically, people are considered obese if their weight exceeds their ideal body weight by ________ percent.
energy
The main function of vitamins and minerals is to help release ________ from other foods.
exercise program
All of the following is good advice for devising an exercise program:
-look for an activity that you will find enjoyable
-exercise regularly without overdoing it
-increase your participation gradually
HIV
________ carriers often remain healthy and symptom-free for many years after they are infected.
communication
All of the following is considered a common barrier to effective provider-patient ____________:
-medical visits are very brief, allowing little time for discussion
-many providers use too much medical jargon
-some patients are evasive about their real concerns because they fear a serious diagnosis
tolerance
____________ involves progressive decrease in responsiveness to a drug with continued use.
barbiturates
Because he quit an addictive drug, Michael is experiencing vomiting, diarrhea, chills, and tremors. Michael is probably withdrawing from _____________.
heroin
The most significant narcotics problem in modern Western society is the use of ________.
hallucinogens
Use of hallucinogens is most likely to result in distortions in sensory and perceptual experience?