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99 terms

Ap psych personality

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personality
The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called
Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's personality is built
Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?
character
When one thinks of "value judgment" in relation to personality, one is thinking about
behaviorist
The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one's personal characteristics and actions.
humanistic perspective
Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?
explanation
One limitation of the trait perspective compared to the other perspectives is there is not much ________.
repressed
Sigmund Freud's theory came at a time in history when the predominant attitude toward sex was
"Well, Noreen, there really is no 'subconscious' in Freud's theory!"
Charise and Noreen were having a conversation about men. "You know," Noreen said, "I think my husband tries to annoy me! Even though he tries to do what I ask, I think that subconsciously he really enjoys ticking me off to see the reactions he'll get. Freud must have been right!" Charise, who has just studied personality psychology in school, corrects Noreen by saying which of the following?
unconscious mind
Freud believed that the _____________ was the most important determining factor in human behavior and personality.
short-term memory
The conscious mind can be compared to
preconscious level
Which of Freud's levels of consciousness consists of thoughts and feelings that can be easily brought into immediate awareness?
conscious
For Freud, the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are currently aware are in the ______ mind
preconscious
For Freud, material that we are not currently aware of but that can be easily recalled is in the ______ mind
unconscious
For Freud, thoughts and feelings that are well below the surface of awareness and cannot normally be recalled are in the ______ mind.
preconscious level
"What did you have for lunch an hour ago?" Before I asked you that question, the information was in your
three
For Freud, the mind is divided into ___ levels
ego
Many have compared Freud's idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?
it"
Freud named the most primitive part of the personality the id, which is a Latin word that means
id
If it feels good, do it" best describes the
id
In Sigmund Freud's theory, the _______ operates according to the pleasure principle.
Steal a hot dog from the vendor on the corner
You are quite hungry but don't have a dime to your name. If you were described as "all id and only id'" what would you do?
id
What is Freud's term for the primitive, biological side of personality?
id
The pleasure principle is associated with which element of Freud's personality theory?
id
For Freud, the only personality structure present at birth is the
id
For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the
id
There were three friends. Maybe you've heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule-oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure-seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Ron was mostly
"I'm so angry I could kill that player!"
Jessie becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud's model of the mind, her id would unconsciously say
ego
There were three friends. Maybe you've heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule-oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure-seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Harry was mostly
ego
What is Freud's term for the executive of the personality that has a realistic plan for obtaining gratification of an individual's desires?
ego
According to Freud, rationality and logical thinking and reasoning are controlled by the
ego
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id's drives in the external world.
I
According to Freud, the second part of the personality is the ego, which gets its name from the Latin word for
to obtain gratification without negative consequences
An individual operating on the reality principle seeks
reality principle
The ego operates according to the
amoral
A personality that consisted of only the ego and the id would be completely
guilt
In Freud's theory, the id is to fun as the superego is to
superego
There were three friends. Maybe you've heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule-oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure-seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Hermione was mostly
superego
Which element in Freud's personality theory contains the conscience?
during the preschool years
The superego develops
superego
For Freud, the moral center of personality is the
superego
According to Freud, the ______ acts as our conscience
over the self
From what Latin phrase is the term superego derived
ego; id; superego
The job of the _________ is to find practical ways for the _________ to get its pleasure needs met without offending the morality of the ________.
superego
In the metaphor of the angel, the devil, and me, the angel is the
id
In the metaphor of the angel, the devil, and me, the devil is the
id and superego; ego
In Freud's personality theory, the ________ are in conflict and the _______ must mediate between them.
defense mechanisms
What is Freud's term for the unconscious efforts by the ego to deny or distort reality for the purpose of protecting itself when conflict becomes too intense?
anxiety
According to Freud, the result of conflict between the id and superego is
her superego, because it is this part of the personality that is the moral conscience
Yongmei is studying for her math test. Her boyfriend Marcus asks if she can go to the movies with him. She would love to go but she knows she has to study for the math test in order to pass the class. What part of Yongmei's personality will say "You must stay home and study because passing the class is necessary for you to graduate"?
erogenous zones
Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stages focus on several parts of the body identified as
We could become fixated at that stage
What did Sigmund Freud believe could happen if our needs were delayed at a particular psychosexual stage?
mouth
According to Freud, during the first 18 months of life, the dominant source of sensual pleasure is the
oral
The age at which a baby was weaned would have most impact on the ____ stage
oral stage
According to Freud, personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. During infancy, the psychosexual stage is called the
oral
Dan plays the trumpet, is on the debate team, bites his nails, and chews gum. Freud might say Dan was fixated in the ________ stage.
5
According to Freud's theory of personality development, there are ________ stages through which each person must pass.
anal
Toilet training takes place during which of Freud's psychosexual stages?
Oscar and Felix were both anally fixated, but in different ways
In the classic sitcom The Odd Couple, it was amazing that Oscar and Felix got along because Oscar was such a slob and Felix was so obsessively neat. From a Freudian perspective, what could be said about the way these two men made it through the anal stage of development?
Oscar had an anal expulsive personality and Felix had an anal retentive personality
In the classic sitcom The Odd Couple, it was amazing that Oscar and Felix got along because Oscar was such a slob and Felix was so obsessively neat. From a Freudian perspective, what could be said about the way these two men made it through the anal stage of development?
anal
Steve is extremely uptight and compulsively neat and orderly. According to Freudian theory, he became fixated at the ________ stage of psychosexual development.
The child is toilet trained.
According to Freud and his followers, what is the most significant event that occurs during the anal stage of psychosexual development?
phallic
The Freudian stage in which boys must resolve the Oedipus complex is the ______ stage.
phallic stage
According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the
castration anxiety
Sigmund Freud proposed that little boys' fears that their fathers may retaliate against them for forbidden sexual and aggressive impulses may lead to
Oedipus complex
Four-year-old Larry squeezes between his Mommy and Daddy as they sit together on the couch. He cuddles with Mommy and pushes Daddy away. This illustrates which Freudian concept?
the Oedipus complex
According to Freud, a boy's sexual attachment to his mother and jealousy of his father is called
identification with the same-sex parent
What did Freud perceive as the outcome of successful resolution of the Oedipus complex?
mostly girls
. Jill is an 8-year-old girl who is having a birthday party. According to Freud, since Jill is in the latency period, whom would you expect to be at her party?
latency
Young Bart says to his friend "What do you want to play at recess today, war or forts?" His comrade, Yevgeni, replies "Why don't we try something different today and play with the girls?" Completely aghast, Bart yells back "Are you crazy?? Girls have COOTIES!" Which stage of personality development is Bart likely in, according to Freud?
genital
In which psychosexual stage do sexual interests reawaken and become stronger?
genital
Which of the Freudian stages of personality development begins around puberty?
genital
According to Freud, personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. The last stage is called the
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
What is the correct sequence of Freud's psychosexual stages?
neo-Freudians
Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud's theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud's work?
collective
Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the
personal unconscious
According to Jung, each person's own repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the
personal unconscious
Carl Jung's term for the part of our personality that Freud referred to as the unconscious was the
Rogers
Which of the following was NOT a neo-Freudian
archetypes
The neo-Freudian, Carl Jung, suggested the existence of a collective unconscious that contains images shared by all people called
collective unconscious
According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the
Alfred Adler
Which neo-Freudian viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the feelings of inferiority all people share?
compensation
Which defense mechanism figured prominently in the theory of Alfred Adler?
womb envy
According to Karen Horney, men had
compensation
Which defense mechanism was a prominent part in both Adler's and Horney's theories
being raised without love, affection, and security
According to Karen Horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?
Erik Erikson
Which neo-Freudian theorist believed social relationships were the key to understanding personality?
He did not believe that the stories his female patients told about having been sexually abused by their fathers and other family members were real memories.
What was the basis for Freud's development of his theory of the Oedipus conflict?
His interpretations of what his patients told him were ambiguous.
Your teacher organizes a debate on Freudian theory. You are assigned to be on the anti-Freud side and, therefore, must point out problems in the theory. Which of the following would be a reasonable argument for you to make?
professional sports
The textbook suggests that Freudian theory, though controversial, has had an impact on many things seen in today's society. Which of the following is NOT cited by the book as having been influenced by Freud?
habits
For the behaviorist, personality is a set of learned responses or
social cognitive
A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.
reciprocal determinism
What is Albert Bandura's term for the relationship among the three factors that influence personality?
feelings of inferiority
Which of the following was not a facet of Bandura's theory of reciprocal determinism
reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as
self-efficacy
A baseball player's son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat, he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field, he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?
self-efficacy
You are about to undergo delicate brain surgery that requires great skill on the part of the surgeon. As the surgical team wheels you into the operating room, you hope the surgeon has a high level of
self-efficacy
According to Albert Bandura, a person's belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as
expectancy
Albert Bandura is to self-efficacy as Julian Rotter is to
the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not
One of the main differences between the psychoanalytic view and the social cognitive view is ________________.