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Republican Party
They were founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. Originally, it was composed mainly of northerners from both major parties of the time, the Democrats and the Whigs, with some former Know-Nothings as well.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's statement affirming the abolition of slavery as a war aim (1862). 4 million slaves were automatically freed.
Reconstruction
The plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War and extend the ideas of liberty and equality to the slaves that had been freed during the war.
13th Amendment
This abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States
Black Codes
Prevented colored people the right to vote, serve on juries, testify in court against whites, hold office, or serve in the military and regulated their marriages and labor contracts
Civil Rights Act
This granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Ku Klux Klan
This was a secret organization. Extremely racist Whites who hated the Blacks and founded the "Invisible Empire of the South," in Tennessee 1866—an organization that scared Blacks into not voting or not seeking jobs, etc... they encouraged violence against the Blacks in addition to terror. This radical group threatened a lot of what abolitionists wanted to do.
Literacy Tests
This refers to state government practices of administering tests to prospective voters purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote. In practice, these tests were intended to disenfranchise African-Americans.
Grandfather Clauses
This was a statute enacted by many American southern states in the wake of Reconstruction that allowed potential white voters to circumvent literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to disfranchise southern blacks
Poll Taxes
This was enacted in Southern states had the effect of disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a prerequisite for voting.
Jim Crow Laws
These were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states, starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
Segregation
Is the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
Plessy v Ferguson
(1896) * "Seperate but equal" An 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision provided legal justification for the Jim Crow system until the 1950s.
Frontier
The line separating areas of denser settlement from "unsettlement" territory
Great Plains
A vast grassland region of central North America extending from the North Dakota to Texas. Much of the area is used for cattle ranching and wheat farming. This frontier was settled by thousands during the Homestead Act of 1862
Push Factors
A negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave, esp. in one's country, region, organization, religion, etc.
Transcontinental Railroad
A train route across the United States. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
Indian Wars
Were the multiple conflicts between American settlers or the United States government and the native peoples of North America from the time of earliest colonial settlement until 1890.
Reservation
The system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. Within these reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.
Buffalo Soldiers
A member of one of the African-American regiments within the US Army after the Civil War, serving primarily in the Indian wars of the late 1860s.
Sand Creek Massacre
Was an atrocity in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70-163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.
Little Big Horn
A particularly violent example of the warfare between whites and Native Americans in the late nineteenth century, also know as "Custer's Last Stand." In two days, June 25 and 26, 1876, the combined forces of over 2,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians defeated and killed more than 250 U.S. soldiers, including Colonel George Custer. The battle came as the U.S. government tried to compel Native Americans to remain on the reservations and Native Americans tried to defend territory from white gold-seekers. This Indian advantage did not last long, however, as the union of these Indian fighters proved tenuous and the United States Army soon exacted retribution.
Wounded Knee
A battle between the U.S. Army and the Dakota Sioux, in which several hundred Native Americans and 29 U.S. soldiers died. Tensions erupted violently over two major issues: the Sioux practice of the "Ghost Dance," which the U.S. government had outlawed, and the dispute over whether Sioux reservation land would be broken up because of the Dawes Act. Left some 150 Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.
Homestead Act
A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land. This originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres of unappropriated federal land within the boundaries of the public land states.
Boom Town
Community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. Sprang up overnight along the railroads and mining sites
Open Range
Large Public lands not belonging to anyone. Grazing land without fences or other barriers.
Dawes Act
(1887)An Act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold for money to fund U.S. government efforts to "civilize" Native Americans. Of 130 million acres held in Native American reservations before the Act, 90 million were sold to non-Native buyers. It tried to Americanize the American Indian.
Market Economy
Is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.
Capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
Second Industrial Revolution
The rapid rate of path breaking inventions. Is usually dated between 1870 and 1914, although a number of its characteristic events can be dated to the 1850s.
Samuel Morse
an American inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system and code.
Telegraph
A system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection.
Alexander Graham Bell
Was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
Transatlantic Cable
Is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic.
Thomas Edison
Inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
Wilbur and Orville Wright
Were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight
Andrew Carnegie
Was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He built a leadership role as a philanthropist. He gave away to charities and foundations about $350 million. Founder of Carnegie Steel who became the leader in the nation's steel industry
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
J.P. Morgan
Was an American financier, banker, and philanthropist who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, to form the United States Steel Corporation
Vertical Integration
Is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.
Horizontal Integration
Is a strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive. One example would be when a company acquires competitors in the same industry doing the same stage of production for the creation of a monopoly.
Trusts
An economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.
Monopoly
Is being the only one in a given selling a specific product, or having exclusive control over a certain thing, or the trade mark of a board game where the aim is to buy properties on the board and then build hotels on those properties.
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Labor Union
An organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions.
Strike
A work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Lockout
A temporary work stoppage or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labor dispute.
Knights of Labor
This Union that grew rapidly because of a combination of their open-membership policy, the continuing industrialization of the American economy, and the growth of urban population; welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigratns, and African Americans;
were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and managements. Their goal was to create a cooperative society in which laborers owned the industries in which they worked.This openess alson leads to there demise.
American Federation of Labor
Was the first federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association and led by Samuel Gompers; an alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; concentrated on bread-and-butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
Samuel Gompers
Head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). For 38 years, he worked for the AFL, making it a major force in the industrial world. He believed that if workers make good pay, it will make everyone prosperous. He believes in fair wages for all.
Haymarket Riot
The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.
Homestead Strike
1892, A strike at a Carnegie steel plant in P.A., that ended in an armed battle between the strikers, three hundred armed "Pinkerton" detectives hired by Carnegie, and federal troops, which killed ten people and wounded more than sixty. The strike was part of a nationwide wave of labor unrest in the summer of 1892 that helped the Populists gain some support from industrial workers.
Capitalism
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Social Darwinism
This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.
Communism
A social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production, absence of social classes, money, and the state.
A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country
Socialism
Political belief in promoting social and economic equality through the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporation
Urbanization
The process of people moving to cities.
Tenement
Originally referred simply to a multiple-family rental building; in late 1800s, used to describe slum dwellings only. Had many windowless rooms, little or no plumbing or central heating, & perhaps a row of privies in the basement
Political Machine
A political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses, who receive rewards for their efforts.
Ellis Island
The gateway for millions of immigrants to the U.S. as the nation's busiest immigration inspection station from 1892 until 1954.
Angel Island
An island in San Francisco Bay that has served a variety of purposes, including military forts, a US Public Health Service Quarantine Station, and a US Bureau of Immigration inspection and detention facility.
Ghetto
A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.
Americanization
The influence of the U.S. on the culture of other countries. Also refers to the process of acculturation by immigrants or annexed populations to American customs and values.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882, Federal legislation that prohibited most further Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first major legal restriction on immigration in U.S. history.
Nativism
The policy of protecting the interests of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Granger Movement
A farmers' organization and movement that started as a social/educational association; the Grange later organized politically to pass a series of laws to regulate railroads in various states.
Interstate Commerce Act
It established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities and required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government
Populist Party
3rd political party created by farmers' organizations (Grange, other alliances)
They demonstrated their power in the election of 1892 with Populist president candidate James B Weaver of Iowa. They consisted mostly of farmers who were engaged in type of farming being oppressed by new, mechanized commercial agriculture.
They believed people should influence the political process.
William Jennings Bryan
A dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the U.S. He served two terms as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Nebraska and was U.S. Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson.
Progressives
Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or reform, as opposed to wishing to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters.
Temperance Movement
A social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Muckrakers
Bright young reporters at the turn of the 20th century who won this unfavorable moniker from Theodore Roosevelt, but boosted the circulations of their magazines by writing exposés of widespread corruption in American society.
Upton Sinclair
He was a writer of novels of social protest and political tracts; he is best known for his 1906 expose of the meatpacking industry, "The Jungle."
Settlement House
Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, they were found in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the US. Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed life-long passions for social activism. Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago was the most prominent.
Jane Addams
She a pioneer settlement social worker,public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. She helped turn the US to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace.
National Woman Suffrage Association
NWSA American organization, founded in New York City, that was created by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women
Municipal Reform
Changes in city governments made to encourage greater efficiency, honesty, and responsiveness.
Secret Ballot
A voting method in which a voter's choices in an election are anonymous.
Referendum
A progressive reform procedure allowing voters to place a bill or on the ballot for final approval, even after being passed by legislature.
17th Amendment
Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.
Women's Suffrage
The right of women to vote and to stand for electoral office.
Child Labor
Refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is deemed harmful.
Susan B. Anthony
An American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.
Theodore Roosevelt
He unexpectedly became the 26th president of the United States in September 1901, after the assassination of William McKinley. Young and physically robust, he brought a new energy to the White House, and won a second term on his own merits in 1904. confronted the bitter struggle between management and labor head-on and became known as the great "trust buster" for his strenuous efforts to break up industrial combinations under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He was also a dedicated conservationist, setting aside some 200 million acres for national forests, reserves and wildlife refuges during his presidency. In the foreign policy arena, Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace Prize for his negotiations to end the Russo-Japanese War and spearheaded the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal. He returned to politics in 1912, mounting a failed run for president at the head of a new Progressive Party.
Square Deal
It was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. These three demands are often referred to as the "three C's."
Coal Strike of 1902
Was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities. President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received a 10% wage increase and reduced workdays from ten to nine hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.
Meat Inspection Act
A law passed by Congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspection.
Pure Food and Drug Act
A law passed by Congress to inspect and regulate the labeling of all foods and pharmaceuticals intended for human consumption.
William Howard Taft
27th President of the United States, he was progressive in his polices, and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States. He is the only person to have served in both of these offices.
16th Amendment
Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the U.S. Census.
Woodrow Wilson
28th U.S. president, served in office from 1913 to 1921 and led America through World War I. An advocate for democracy and world peace, He is often ranked by historians as one of the nation's greatest presidents. Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission. He tried to keep the United States neutral during World War I but ultimately called on Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. After the war, he helped negotiate a peace treaty that included a plan for the League of Nations. Although the Senate rejected U.S. membership in the League.
Graduated Income Tax
A progressive tax system, failure to index the brackets to inflation will result in effective tax increase, as inflation in wages will increase individual income and move individuals into higher tax brackets with higher percentage rate.
Federal Reserve Act
An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking secto
Clayton Antitrust Act
Law extending the anti-trust protections of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural organizations from antimonopoly constraints.
Federal Trade Commission
A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition false advertising, and mislabeling of goods.
Spanish-American War
A war between Spain and the United States fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba.
Cuba
An Island south of the US that is brutally crushed by Spanish troops. US was concerned, having LOTS of investment in Cuba. Cubans are forced into prison/concentration camps, published in US newspapers and pitied.
Jose Martí
Led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War. Spoke against American occupation in Cuba.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper editor in New York City who grew competitive and employed yellow journalism in order to entice readers to buy their papers; both men stopped at nothing in order to get a good story, and so were able to deliver shocking stories and exciting anecdotes.
U.S.S Maine
The battleship sent to Havana to protect Americans and their property; an explosion sank it; killing 260 men. Newspapers said the ship was blown up by Spain and it became a Ralling call for war. "Remember the _________"
Rough Riders
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen who volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Recruited by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
San Juan Hill
One of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt and Rough Riders defeated Spain. Placed America at an advantage. Two days later, American ships destroyed the Spanish fleet in Cuba. In August, the US and Spain agreed to a treaty ending the war.
Commodore Dewey
Commodore during the Spanish-American War who captured the Philippines and Guam. Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay. His victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain, from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies.
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
"White Man's Burden"
A phrase used to justify European imperialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; it is the title of a poem by Rudyard Kipling.
Anti-Imperialist League
Objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
Mark Twain
He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age". The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.
Teller Amendment
Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S
Platt Amendment
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treaties with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Queen Liliuokalani
The was the last reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She took the throne in 1891 following the death of her brother, King Kalakaua. She was a strong voice for native Hawaiians, whose power had been limited by the increasing influence of U.S. settlers in Hawaii.
Spheres of Influence
A country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority.
"Open Door" Policy
Is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 Message delivered by John to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.
Boxer rebellion
a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty ended the Russo-Japanese. It was brokered by Teddy Roosevelt. It forced Japan to drop demands for a cash indemnity and Russian evacuation of Skhalin island, though it received control of Korea. This marked the emergence of a new era of diplomatic negotiations, multi-track diplomacy.
Panama Canal
a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Yellow Fever
A tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Caused problem in the construction of the Panama Canal.
Monroe Doctrine
A principle of US policy, originated by President James Monroe in 1823, that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US.
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
"Big Stick" policy
Refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly, and carry a big stick.
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries. Used by President Taft.
Militarism
The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Nationalism
Is a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
He was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On June 28, 1914 while paying a state visit to Sarajevo and was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. His assassination is what the catalyst that initiated World War I.
Allied Powers
The victorious allied nations of World War I and World War II. In World War I, the Allies included Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States. In World War II, the Allies included Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.
Central Powers
Germany and its allies (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) in World War I.
Trench Warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. , Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Convoys
A group of ships traveling together, typically accompanied by armed troops and warships for protection.
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war. Also caused Germany to say they would stop submarine warfare.
Zimmerman telegraph
German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. When the note was intercepted and published in March 1917, it caused an uproar that made some Americans more willing to enter the war.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Mobilization
The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
American Expeditionary Force
American force of 14,500 that landed in France in June 1917 under the command of General John Pershing. Both women and blacks served during the war, mostly under white officers
Selective Service Act
Enacted May 18, 1917 authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people.
War Industries Board
Headed by Bernard Baruch, this federal agency coordinated industrial production during World War I, setting production quotas, allocating raw materials, and pushing companies to increase efficiency and eliminate waste. Under the economic mobilization of the War Industries Board, industrial production in the United States increased 20 percent during the war.
Herbert Hoover
Was the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Hoover, born to a Quaker family, was a professional mining engineer. He achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I.
War Bonds
Debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. It is an emotional appeal to patriotic citizens to lend the government their money because these bonds offer a rate of return below the market rate.
Espionage Act
A law prohibiting interference with the draft and other acts of national "disloyalty." Together with the Sedition Act of 1918, which added penalties for abusing the government in writing, it created a climate that was unfriendly to civil liberties
Sedition Act
A series of laws, passed that prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government.
Committee of Public Information
A government office during World War I known popularity as the Creel Committee for its Chairman George Creel, it was dedicated to winning everyday Americans' support for the war effort. It regularly distributed pro-war propaganda and sent out an army of "four-minute men" to rally crowds and deliver "patriotic pep."
Eugene Debs
Was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
Great Migration
Was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
Conscientious Objectors
A person who for reasons of conscience objects to serving in the armed forces.
Fourteen points
Woodrow Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after World War I, calling for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations.
Treaty of Versailles
World War I concluded with this vengeful document, which secured peace but imposed sharp terms on Germany and created a territorial mandate system to manage former colonies of the world powers. To Woodrow Wilson's chagrin, it incorporated very few of his original Fourteen Points, although it did include the League of Nations that Wilson had long sought. Isolationists in the United States, deeply opposed to the League, led the opposition to the Treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate.
Roaring Twenties
Was a time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.
Disarmament
The reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons. The reduction of armed forces and weapons
Red scare
A fear of Russia that ran high in the US even after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This resulted in a nationwide crusade against those whose Americanism was suspect.
Palmer Raids
This was an attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to Palmer's methods. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.
J. Edgar Hoover
Ambitious assistant of Palmer, he helped orchestrate a series of raids on alleged radical centers throughout the country and arrested 6,000 people. (500, non- Americans were deported)., put in charge to fight against radicals during the Red Scare after World War 1.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.
Warren G. Harding
29th President of the United States. A Republican promised return to normality after WW1 used efforts of make no enemies during his presdiency. scandals affected his presidency such as the Ohio Gang that had to do with financial jobs that he offered his friends. Died into his presidency.
Nativism
The policy of protecting of the interest of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
National Origins Act
Reduced immigration until 1927 to 2 percent of each nationality's representation in the 1890 census; After 1927 (later postponed to 1929) the law set a cap of 150,000 immigrants per year and continued to tie admission into the U.S. to the quota system
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy in the 1920s, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Four Power Treaty
US, Great Britain, France and Japan, intended to respect interests of others in Pacific Islands, notify in event that any other country launches an attack in area,no promises were made to help or restrain own freedom of action. It agreed to cease battleship production for ten years and reduce fleet of capital ships to a fixed ratio. It was expected to produce a balance of forces in the Pacific.
Kellogg- Briand Pact
1928- Between France and US. Denounced war, called for a limitation of arms, and prohibited the use of war as an "instrument of national policy". It outlawed war as a tool of foreign policy.
Installment Buying
A commodity over a period of time. The buyer gains the use of commodity immediately and then pays for it in periodic payments called installments.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women's rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Booker T. Washington
A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s when New York City's Harlem became an intellectual and cultural capital for African Americans; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) created in 1909 by a group of liberals (including Du Bois, Jane Addams and John Dewey) to eradicate racial discrimination
Great Depression
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s. One of the darkest moments in World History.
Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF)
Bonus Army
Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF) 20,000 veterans who converged on the capital in the summer of 1932; they were demanding the immediate payment of their entire bonus, which was meant to be paid in later years. They set up public camps. The pending bonus bill failed to pass in Congress, and Hoover arranged to pay the return fare of 6000 of them, but the rest refused to leave and were forcibly removed by MacArthur in the Battle of Anacostia Flats
Gross National Product (GNP)
Is the total value of all the goods and services produced by a nation in a single year.
Dust Bowl
Severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains. This region became known as the dust bowl, named after the dust that constantly flew around and smothered everything. As the horrid conditions in the Dust Bowl coupled with poor farming practice, 350,000 farmers whose crops had been ruined migrated to California. These ex-farmers became known as Okies.
Fireside chats
Roosevelt utilized the radio to reach out to the nation as whole. By talking to the nation over the radio Roosevelt was establishing a more "personal" connection. Fireside chats were Roosevelt's various radio addresses that people could listen to in the comfort of their own homes.
New Deal
The 1st was to a collection of programs created in the early 1930s that aimed to improve the economic situation in America. The 2nd was a set of new programs put into place from 1934 to 1936. These included additional banking reforms, new tax laws, and new relief programs. The primary goal of the Second New Deal was to take a crack at "money classes" and use the tax dollars of the rich to help the country.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third "R" let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.
Bank Holiday
All banks were to close while Congress met to discuss the bank situation. After four days, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act which allowed banks to reopen only if the Treasury Department inspected and testified that the bank had sufficient tax reserves.
National Recovery Act (NRA)
Plan devised by the emergency congress designed to combine immediate relief and long-range recovery. It was designed to help the unemployed, labor, and industry.
National Labor Relations Act
This law also known as the Wagner Act. Established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Sit-down strike
The 1936-1937 Flint Sit-Down Strike changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Court-Packing Plan
Franklin Roosevelt's politically motivated and ill-fated scheme to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. His objective was to overcome the Court's objections to New Deal reforms.
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy., right-wing movement, socialist, influenced by Nietzsche; after WWI broke out, he wanted Italy to participate with France. There was many problems going on in Italy, thus he promised improvement and got into power.
Adolf Hitler
This dictator (1889-1945) was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. German Nazi dictator during World War II.
Blitzkrieg
A German term for "lightning war," This is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery.
Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. They were four laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents.
Quarantine Speech
Speech given by Franklin D. Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, although it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.
Public response to the speech was mixed.
Lend-Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
"Four Freedoms"
These were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
Atlantic Charter
This was a policy issued on August 14, 1941 by Great Britain and the US early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It outlined a vision in which a world would abandon their traditional beliefs in military alliances and spheres of influence and govern their relations with one another though democratic process, with an international organization serving as the arbiter of disputes and the protector of every nation's right of self determination.
Pearl Harbor
(December 7, 1941) The US thought the Japanses would attack British Malaya or the Philipines. But instead they attacked here, at several naval bases wiping out many ships and killing 3000 men. The next day the US declares war on Japan. The Day after that the Germans and Italy declare war on the US. The US decided this was the only way to keep the US safe from anarchy.The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II
Stalingrad
(July 17, 1942-Feb. 2, 1943), was the location of the successful Soviet defense (now Volgograd) in the U.S.S.R. during World War II. Russians consider it to be the greatest battle of their Great Patriotic War, and most historians consider it to be the greatest battle of the entire conflict. It stopped the German advance into the Soviet Union and marked the turning of the tide of war in favor of the Allies. The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the bloodiest battles in history, with combined military and civilian casualties of nearly 2 million.
D-Day
Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Prior this invation, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.
Normandy
The invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.
Battle of the Bulge
(16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945) was a last major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard. United States forces bore the brunt of the attack and incurred their highest casualties for any operation during the war. The battle also severely depleted Germany's armored forces on the western front which Germany was largely unable to replace. German personnel and Luftwaffe aircraft also sustained heavy losses.
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe.
Coral Sea
The location where a key battle was fought during 4-8 May 1942, this major major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.
Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
This was a crucial and decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Between 3 and 6 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy under Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance decisively defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondo near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that proved irreparable. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare." It was Japan's first naval defeat since the Battle of Shimonoseki Straits in 1863.
Hiroshima
Japanese city which the first atomic bomb was dropped (August 6, 1945).
(The US had warned Japan that it had weapons of mass destruction. The Japanese were warned to surrender or suffer the consequences.)
Nagasaki
Japanese city which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
V-J Day
This is a name chosen for the day on which Japan surrendered, in effect ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made - to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and, because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 (when it was announced in the United States and the rest of the Americas and Eastern Pacific Islands) - as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.
Japanese-American Internment
Similar to the Red Scare in WWI, many Americans feared Japanese Americans were a threat to American safety. 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into these camps because the US feared that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion. The camps deprived the Japanese-Americans of basic rights, and the internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property. In the Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the concentration camps.
Korematsu v. U.S
(1941) *Executive Powers
This was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship. Court ruled that the race was 'suspect classification', and exclusion was necessary during wartime.
Double V Campaign
The African American community in the United States resolved on a "Double Victory": African Americans pledged to fight not only for victory over Hitler in Europe, but also against racism at home.
A. Philip Randolph
Labor and Civil Rights leader in the 1940s who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; he demanded that FDR create a Fair Employment Commission to investigate job discrimination in war industries. FDR agreed only after he threatened a march on Washington by African Americans.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Is a U.S. Civil Rights Organization that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, it was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Though still existent, it has been much less influential since the end of the 1955-68 civil rights movement.
Holocaust
Was the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a definition of the Holocaust that includes the additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to approximately eleven million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.
Final Solution
This was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide. This policy was formulated in procedural terms at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, and culminated in the Holocaust which saw the killing of two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.
Nuremburg Trials
These trials were held for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, the Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949. The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) committed suicide and was never brought to trial. Although the legal justifications for the trials and their procedural innovations were controversial at the time, They are now regarded as a milestone toward the establishment of a permanent international court, and an important precedent for dealing with later instances of genocide and other crimes against humanity.
Tehran Conference
A war time conference held in Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe
United Nations
UN is international body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of preventing further world wars; much like the former League of Nations in ambition, it was more realistic in recognizing the authority of the Big Five Powers in keeping peace in the world, thus guaranting veto power to all permant members of its Security Council (Britian, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States)
Security Council
Important part of the United Nations; has to maintain international peace and security; takes care of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action
General Assembly
This is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.
Yalta Conference
Meeting of FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, in February 1945 at an old Tsarist resort on the Black Sea, where the Big Three leaders laid the foundations for the postwar division of power in Europe, including a divided Germany an territorial concessions to the Soviet Union.
Cold War
The 45 year diplomatic tension between the US and the Soviet Union that divided much of the world into polarized camps, capitalist against communist.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Containment
America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan, and declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure.
Berlin Airlift
Year-long mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War.
Berlin Wall
Fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on orders from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West. Until its destruction in 1989, the wall was a vivid symbol of the divide between the communist and capitalist worlds.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favour and represented a foreign policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world's superpowers perilously close the brink of nuclear confrontation.
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US.
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States who narrowly defeated the incumbent vice-president Nixon in 1960 to become the youngest person ever elected president. Launched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights; assumed the blame for the Bay of Pigs ivasion and was credited as well for the superb handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assasinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald
Korean War
First "hot war" or the Cold War. Began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN Forces, dominated by the US, and the war ended in stalemate in 1953.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance of Western European powers and the US and Canada established in 1949 to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union, marking a giant stride forward for European unity and American internationalism.
Nikita Khrushchev
Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958-1964, he was a communist party offical who emerge from the power struggle after Stalin's death in 1953 to lead the USSR. He crushed a pro-Western uprising of Hngary in 1956, and, in 1958, issued an ultimatum for Western evacuation of Berline. Defended Soviet-style economic planning in the Kitchen Debate with Richard Nixon in 1959 and attempted to send missiles to Cuba in 1962 but backed down when comfronted by JFK.
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Organization of communist countries set up to counter NATO
Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power. The mission failed and became a public relations disaster early in John F. Kennedy's presidency.
Truman Doctrine
1947; Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Potsdam Conference
From July 17 to August 2, 1945, President Harry S Truman met with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and British leaders Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee near Berlin to deliver an ultimatum to Japan: surrender of be destroyed.
West Berlin
The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Americans, Brits and French after World War II.
East Berlin
The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Soviet Union World War II.
Berlin Blockade
An attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much-needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War II, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.
Arms Race
The buildup of arms was also a characteristic of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though the development of nuclear weapons changed the stakes for the par.
Nuclear Proliferation
The spread of nuclear weapons to new nations.
Treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons. The treaty came into force on 5 March 1970 and currently there are 189 states party to the treaty, five of which are recognized as nuclear weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council)
General Douglas MacArthur
Was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.
Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of the US Forces in Europe during World War II; became President of the US and during his two terms presided over the conomically prosperous 1950s. He was praised for his dignity and decency, though critcized for not being more assertive on civil rights
Eisenhower Doctrine
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country. Restatement of the containment policy.
G.I Bill of Rights
A law passed in 1944 that provided educational and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in World War II. Benefits are still available to persons honorably discharged from the armed forces. Suburbs Neighborhoods formed away from the city
Baby Boomers
A person who was born between 1946 and 1964. The Baby Boomer generation makes up a substantial portion of the North American population. Representing nearly 20% of the American public, baby boomers have a significant impact on the economy.
Interstate Highway System
A network of U.S. highways connecting the 48 contiguous states and most of the cities with populations above 50,000, begun in the 1950s and estimated to carry about a fifth of the nation's traffic. This was passed by President Eisenhower.
NAACP
An organization that promotes the rights and welfare of black people. The The National Association for the Advacement of Colored People is the oldest civil rights organization in the United States, founded in 1909. Among the it's achievements was a lawsuit that resulted in the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown versus Board of Education, in 1954, which declared the segregation of public schools unconstitutional.
Brown v Board of Education
1954) *Equal Protection
Whether black youths were being deprived of equal protection by the law. Court rejects 'separate but equal' and declares it unconstitutional. The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power.".
Thurgood Marshall
The first African American judge of the US Supreme Court. He is remembered especially for winning the 1954 case before the Supreme Court which ended segregation in public schools.
Integration
Mixing races in public places. It includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture.
Busing
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools in such a manner as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
Rosa Parks
Was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She got arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
A political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 21, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
One of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April of 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 a week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, the Freedom Summer, and the MFDP. young people.
Freedom Riders
A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. Freedom Riders were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.
March on Washington (1963)
A large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. a. Philip Randolph.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibited states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." specifically no literacy tests. signed into law by LBJ.
Affirmative Action
An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.
Black Power
This group emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, advance black values, and secure black autonomy. a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of separate social institutions and a self-sufficient economy (separatism help usher in black radical thought, and action against white supremacy.
Black Panthers
An African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.They achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.
Nation of Islam
Religious group known as black Muslims founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion
Malcolm X
American activist. A member of the Nation of Islam(1952-1963), he advocated separatism and blackpride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964) and was assassinated in Harlem.
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States from 1960-1963 when he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. He was perhaps one of the most well-loved presidents in history as he was youthful and seemed to represent America moving forward in a new direction. He was the first media president, swaying many voters by his performance in the first televised presidential debate. He won the election on an extremely small margin... promised to be more active in the fight against communism
Lyndon B Johnson
He came into power after Kennedy's assassination in Texas. He was a champion of civil rights legislation and the "war on poverty." He was bent on accruing a reputation like that of FDR for his Great Society, a dream of an American society of equality and opportunity, but instead was saddled with the Vietnam war. Known for his push for Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the Immigration Act of 1965 which did away with national-origins quotas and increased legal immigration.
Vietnam: When he was unable to turn the tide with Operation Rolling Thunder and bombing, he adopted the meatgrinder strategy of imposing unacceptable casualties, resulting in a massive increase in the number of troops
"War on Poverty"
Waged by Johnson's Great Society programs that presented a classic liberal platform.
• Civil and voting rights acts
• Public school funding—when the rich moved to the suburbs all the poverty and squalor remained in the cities, destroying the tax base which of course had negative effects on public education
• Medicare and Medicaid
• National endowment for arts and humanities (PBS)
• Clean air and water quality acts
• Endangered species preservation act (1966)
"Great Society"
Johnson demanded an end to poverty and racial injustice, promising to carry on JFK's legacy but wanting to add in his own plans and ideas. He was bent on fixing the inequalities of US society and planned to end segregation among other racial injustices. He wanted to secure a reputation like that of FDR with a similar New Deal kind of structure. This is what Johnson wanted to be known and remembered for but instead he was stuck with the Vietnam war which ended up taking all his time so he was unable puruse his Great Society to any extent.
Medicare
Is the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease
Medicaid
A joint federal and state program that helps low-income individuals or families pay for the costs associated with long-term medical and custodial care, provided they qualify. Although largely funded by the federal government, Medicaid is run by the state where coverage may vary.
Vietnam War
Was a Cold War conflict. A protracted military conflict (1954-1975) between South Vietnam, supported by United States forces, and Communist North Vietnam. The war resulted in a North Vietnamese victory and unification of Vietnam under Communist rule.
Ho Chi Minh
Was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Geneva Accords
Arranged a settlement which brought about an end to the First Indochina War. The agreement was reached at the end of the Geneva Conference. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region.
Vietcong
Communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.
Domino Theory
A 20th Century Foreign Policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Tet offensive
Executed by the North Vietnam Army and the Viet Kong in '68, the Viet Kong almost succeeded in taking the capital of S.V. and took over the US Embassy. This was captured live on TV and after all that Johnson had been promising, it had a huge impact on the American public. There was much doubt directed at the Johnson administration and the spark of the belief that perhaps it was time to just pull out of the war. This was a turning point. It represented a loss of American morale and the flame of larger anti-war protests. Veterans marched against the war. In 1968 US counter culture spread globally and there were protests around the world
Richard M. Nixon
He was in 1956 Eisenhower's Vice-President., When he was elected there was high inflation and economic recession from high spending in the war. His greatest success was easing coldwar tensions and with forign countries. He was impeached because of the Watergate Scandal but resigned before he was removed from office., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew 540,000 American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. He was also the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Vietnamization
Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.
Paris Peace Accords
This intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War. It ended direct U.S. military combat, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam.
Media
The main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively.
Vietnam-
* Network coverage of war damaged Johnson's popularity.
* Scenes of death and devastation undermined justification for war .
* Print media became more skeptical towards Johnson overtime.
Antiwar protests
was a student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world. All members of the Anti-War Movement shared an opposition to war in Vietnam and condemned U.S. presence there. They claimed this was violating Vietnam's rights. This movement resulted in growing activism on campuses aimed at social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement. CULTURAL.
Women's Liberation Movement
This refers to a series of campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence
Betty Friedan
Was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique which criticized the culture for forcing women to be only housewives and mothers
National Organization of Women (NOW)
Founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
Roe v Wade
(1973) *Right of Privacy
Whether the Texas law against abortion violates a woman's personal liberty and her right to privacy. Court ruled first trimester abortions OK, and prohibitions of such are unconstitutional. The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.
Détente
An easing of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Watergate Scandal
Was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in Aug. 9, 1974
Jimmy Carter
A democratic candidate and elected in 1976 as a Washington "outsider" (1977 1981) He defeated Gerald Ford in 1976. As President, he arranged the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel in 1978 but saw his foreign policy legacy tarnished by the Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis in 1979. Domestically, he tried to rally the American spirit in the face of economic decline, but was unable to stop the rapid increase in inflation. After leaving the presidency, he achieved widespread respect as an elder statesman and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter. Was signed by Israel's leader, Menachem Begin, and Egypt's leader, Anwar el-Sadat, on Sept. 17,1978, creating a framework for peace in the Middle East. The treaty, however, fell apart when Sadat was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists in 1981.
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic Republic with Khomeini as its leader, the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US, Many Iranians opposed Reza Shah Pahlavi, there was also a hatred of Westernization. There was a revival in Islam, and Ayatollah Khomeini soon emerged as the religious opposition to the Shah. He organized demonstrations and riots, and the Shah eventually left. Khomeini then seized power in Iran.
Iran Hostage Crisis
The 444 days in which American embassy workers were held captive by Iranian revolutionaries after young Muslim fundamentalists overthrew the oppressive regime of the American-backed shah, forcing him into exile. These revolutionaries triggered an energy crisis by cutting off Iranian oil. The crisis began when revolutionaries stormed the American embassy, demanding that the United States return the shah to Iran for trial. The episode was marked by botched diplomacy and failed rescue attempts by the Carter Administration. After permanently damaging relations between the two countries, the crisis ended with the hostage's release the day Ronald Reagan became president
Reagan Doctrine
Was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. The United States provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movements in an effort to "roll back" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The doctrine was designed to diminish Soviet influence in these regions as part of the administration's overall Cold War strategy.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Last leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed control in 1985 and ushered in a period of reforms known as glasnost and perestroika. On four occasions, he met U.S. president Ronald Reagan to negotiate arms reduction treaties and other measures to thaw the Cold War. In 1991, after surviving a failed military coup against him, he dissolved the Soviet Union and disbanded the Communist Party.
Glasnost
Meaning "openness," a cornerstone along with Perestroika of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev's reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s. These policies resulted in greater market liberalization, access to the West, and ultimately the end of communist rule. (1039)
Perestroika
Meaning "restructuring," a cornerstone along with Glasnost of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev's reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s. These policies resulted in greater market liberalization, access to the West, and ultimately the end of communist rule. (1039)
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi dictator who led the Ba'ath party in a coup in 1968 and ruled Iraq until the U.S. invasion. He inaugurated hostilities with neighboring Iran in 1980, leading to the protracted and bloody Iran-Iraq War. Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, prompting a broad-based military operation led by the United States to liberate the country. After that war, Hussein retained power under strict sanctions and no-fly demilitarized zones throughout the 1990s, but he stymied international atomic weapons inspectors. After his fall in 2003, he went into hiding but was ultimately captured, tried, and executed by the Iraqi government.
Bill Clinton
Elected President in 1992 as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
International trade organization that was promoted by Clinton, this organization was the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, taking a step toward a global free-trade system. This was highly protested within the United States.
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)
A free trade plan initiated in the Bush administration and enacted by a narrow vote in Congress in the early months of the Clinton administration. It established a common market without tariff barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
George W. Bush
The son of George H.W. Bush and elected president in 2000.
Terrorism
The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes.
September 11, 2001
Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.
Al Qaeda
Arabic for "The Base," an international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s. Founded by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union, the group is headed by Osama Bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, from its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. Since the U.S-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the launch of the "Global War on Terror," the group has been weakened, but still poses significant threats around the world.
Jihad
A "holy war" waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty
Taliban
An Islamic Fundamentalist government ruling Afghanistan. Extreme conservative Muslims, protected Osama bin Laden by allowing him to hide in Afghanistan after he masterminded the September 11, 2001, attack on the United States, government of Afghanistan until 2001, harbored and encouraged Al-Qaeda
Osama Bin Laden
Founder of al-Qaeda, the Sunni militant Islamist organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. He was killed by Navy Seals in 2011.
Iraq War
A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. US combat troops were withdrawn in 2010.
Barack Obama
The 44th president of the United States (took office in 2009). He previously served in the Senate, representing Illinois (2004-2008). Early in his presidency, he increased government spending to address a severe credit crisis and deep recession. In 2009, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in diplomacy
Globalization
The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
Increased imports and exports link the U.S. economy with the world. Brought more products at lower prices but took industrial jobs overseas.
Cesar Chavez
Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963. He helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
Is a union for agricultural laborers, primarily in California. Founded by charismatic leader, Cesar Chavez, UFW reached the peak of its influence in the 1970s, then declined until his death in 1993.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
A coalition that fought for Indian rights guaranteed by treaties(broken by the U.S. government many, many times over) and better conditions and opportunities for American Indians.
Wounded Knee (1973)
In February 1973, members of the American Indian Movement occupied Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which was the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops. They insisted that the government honor treaty obligations of the past.
26th Amendment
This Amendment prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old the right to vote.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Legislation passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. Under this Act, discrimination against a disabled person is illegal in employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and government activities.
Miranda v Arizona (1966)
(1966) *Rights of the Accused
Police failed to inform Miranda of his rights when questioned by the police. Court ruled that the police were in error, and must inform suspects of their 'Miranda Rights'.
Immigration and Naturalization act of 1965
Also known as the Hart-Celler Act, abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.
USA Patriot Act
After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. It gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country. Act is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.