Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
Terms in this set (46)
A set of related conditions.
The occurrence of two or more psychological disorders at the same time.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A childhood disorder characterized by inability to focus attention for more than a few minutes, to remain still and quiet, and to do careful work.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
A childhood disorder characterized by severe language and social impairment along with repetitive habits and inward-focused behaviors.
The ability to make eye contact with others and to look in the same direction as someone else.
Psychological disorders of thought and perception, characterized by an inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions.
A psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thought and emotion, specifically problems with perception, including hallucinations.
The perceptual experiences associated with schizophrenia, including hallucinations, delusional thinking, and disorganized thought and speech.
Convincing sensory experiences that occur in the absence of an external stimulus.
One of the symptoms of schizophrenia; false beliefs or exaggerations held despite evidence to the contrary, such as the idea that one is a famous person.
Symptoms that include non-responsiveness, immobility, emotional flatness, problems with speech, and inability to complete tasks.
Cognitive Symptoms (of Schizophrenia)
Problems with working memory, attention, verbal and visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing, and speech.
The speech of people with schizophrenia, which may follow grammatical rules but be nonsensical in terms of content.
Explanation for the origin of psychological disorders as a combination of biological predispositions (diathesis) plus stress or an abusive environment.
The highest order category of the depressive disorders; it subsumes all forms of depression, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy, and feelings of worthlessness and guilt that last for at least 2 consecutive weeks.
Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)
A form of depression that is milder in intensity but longer in duration than major depressive disorder.
A mood disorder characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, cycling between very low (depressive) and very high (manic) moods.
One mood cycle in bipolar disorder, typically involving increased energy, sleeplessness, euphoria, irritability, delusions of grandeur, increased sex drive, and "racing" thoughts that last at least 1 week.
Consists of same symptoms as manic episodes (e.g. increased energy, sleeplessness, euphoria, irritability, delusions of grandeur, increased sex drive, and "racing" thoughts) but are shorter in duration.
A relatively mild but longer-lasting form of bipolar disorder.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
A state of pervasive and excessive anxiety lasting at least 6 months.
Brief episodes of anxiety associated with a perception of threat and occurring because of fear of danger, and inability to escape, embarrassment, or specific objects.
An anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and persistent anxiety about having more attacks.
An anxiety disorder; an ongoing and irrational fear of a particular object, situation, or activity.
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
An anxiety disorder; fear of humiliation in the presence of others, characterized by intense self-consciousness about one's appearance, behavior, or both.
An anxiety disorder involving fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available, should a panic attack occur.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder in which obsessive thoughts lead to compulsive behaviors.
An unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently and repeatedly comes into a person's mind and causes distress.
A repetitive behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic set of rules.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A type of trauma and stressor related disorder that involves intrusive and persistent cognitive, emotional, and physiological symptoms triggered by catastrophic or horrifying events.
Psychological disorders characterized by extreme splits or gaps in memory, identity, or consciousness.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
A dissociative disorder in which a person develops at least two distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Some psychiatrists question the legitimacy of the disorder.
Somatic Symptom Disorder
A psychological disorder in which a person complains of multiple physical disorders that cause disruption and that persist for at least 6 months.
Illness Anxiety Disorder
Fear of somatic symptoms but without any somatic symptoms.
Patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior that develop in late childhood or adolescence and are maladaptive and inflexible; more consistent than clinical disorders.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to avoid close relationships as well as by emotional aloofness, reclusivity, and a lack of humor.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to live in an isolated and asocial life but also by the presence of odd thoughts, perceptual distortions, and beliefs.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by extreme suspicions and mistrust of others in unwarranted and maladaptive ways.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by the desire to be the center of attention and by dramatic, seductive, flamboyant, and exaggerated behaviors.
Borderline Personality Disorder
A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by out-of-control emotions, fear of being abandoned by others, and vacillation between idealizing and despising people who are close to the person with the disorder.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by having an extremely positive and arrogant self-image and being extraordinarily self-centered; other symptoms are an exaggerated sense of self-importance and grandiosity.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by extremely impulsive, ruthless, and callous behaviors; a serious and potentially dangerous disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by extreme fear of being criticized, low self-esteem, and avoidance of social interaction.
Dependent Personality Disorder
An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by fear of being rejected and a strong need to be cared for.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by rigid habits and extreme perfectionism; more general than obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Chapter 2: Conducting Research in Psychology
Chapter 3: The Biology of Behavior
Chapter 7: Memory