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reproductive cloning

The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus

embryonic stem cells

Undifferentiated cell in embryo which can undergo unlimited division and can give rise to one or several different type of cells

therapeutic cloning

Cloning that scientists use to help patients with irreversibly damaged tissues

adult stem cells

Cells present in adult tissues that generate replacements for nondividing differentiated cells that can be of great therapeutic potential


In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual


The regrowth of body parts from pieces of an organism

nuclear transplantation

The process of replacing the nucleus of an egg or zygote with the nucleus from a differentiated cell


In prokaryotes, A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA


In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon


In prokaryotes, A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions


In prokaryotes, A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene

regulatory gene

A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes


In prokaryotes, A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene


any of a group of basic chromosomes found in chromatin


The basic, beadlike unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of two copies of each of four types of histone

X chromosome inactivation

In female mammals, the inactivation of one X chromosome in each somatic cell

transcription factor

A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes


A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes

alternative RNA splicing

A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns

signal transduction pathway

A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response


A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell


A DNA-transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another


In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined


A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast


In molecular biology, a piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or a viral genome, that moves genes from one cell to another

restriction enzyme

A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium

recombinant DNA

A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources

gene cloning

The production of multiple copies of a gene

gel electrophoresis

The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel

restriction fragment

One of the molecules of DNA produced from a longer DNA molecule cut up by a restriction enzyme; used in RFLP analysis, genome mapping, and other applications

genetic marker

A chromosomal landmark whose inheritance can be studied

PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides

DNA fingerprint

An individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes

genetically modified organism

An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism

gene therapy

The alternation of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease


capable of giving rise to any cell type or a complete embryo


capable of giving rise to several different cell types


a virus that infects bacteria


how different cells become different types of cells


enzymes that block the transcriptions of certain genes

DNA ligase

connects okazaki fragments

DNA virus

virus with dna as genetic material

RNA virus

virus with RNA as genetic material

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