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43 terms

Unit 8: DNA technology, Gene Expression, Stem cells, gene therapy

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reproductive cloning
The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus
embryonic stem cells
Undifferentiated cell in embryo which can undergo unlimited division and can give rise to one or several different type of cells
therapeutic cloning
Cloning that scientists use to help patients with irreversibly damaged tissues
adult stem cells
Cells present in adult tissues that generate replacements for nondividing differentiated cells that can be of great therapeutic potential
clone
In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual
regeneration
The regrowth of body parts from pieces of an organism
nuclear transplantation
The process of replacing the nucleus of an egg or zygote with the nucleus from a differentiated cell
promoter
In prokaryotes, A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
operator
In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon
operon
In prokaryotes, A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions
repressor
In prokaryotes, A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene
regulatory gene
A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
activator
In prokaryotes, A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene
histone
any of a group of basic chromosomes found in chromatin
nucleosome
The basic, beadlike unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of two copies of each of four types of histone
X chromosome inactivation
In female mammals, the inactivation of one X chromosome in each somatic cell
transcription factor
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes
enhancer
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes
alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
signal transduction pathway
A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
transformation
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
transduction
A DNA-transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
plasmid
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast
vector
In molecular biology, a piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or a viral genome, that moves genes from one cell to another
restriction enzyme
A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium
recombinant DNA
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources
gene cloning
The production of multiple copies of a gene
gel electrophoresis
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
restriction fragment
One of the molecules of DNA produced from a longer DNA molecule cut up by a restriction enzyme; used in RFLP analysis, genome mapping, and other applications
genetic marker
A chromosomal landmark whose inheritance can be studied
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides
DNA fingerprint
An individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes
genetically modified organism
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism
gene therapy
The alternation of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease
totipotent
capable of giving rise to any cell type or a complete embryo
pluripotent
capable of giving rise to several different cell types
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
differentiation
how different cells become different types of cells
silencers
enzymes that block the transcriptions of certain genes
DNA ligase
connects okazaki fragments
DNA virus
virus with dna as genetic material
RNA virus
virus with RNA as genetic material