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The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus
embryonic stem cells
Undifferentiated cell in embryo which can undergo unlimited division and can give rise to one or several different type of cells
adult stem cells
Cells present in adult tissues that generate replacements for nondividing differentiated cells that can be of great therapeutic potential
In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual
The process of replacing the nucleus of an egg or zygote with the nucleus from a differentiated cell
In prokaryotes, A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon
In prokaryotes, A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions
A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
In prokaryotes, A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene
The basic, beadlike unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of two copies of each of four types of histone
X chromosome inactivation
In female mammals, the inactivation of one X chromosome in each somatic cell
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes
alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
signal transduction pathway
A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
A DNA-transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast
In molecular biology, a piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or a viral genome, that moves genes from one cell to another
A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
One of the molecules of DNA produced from a longer DNA molecule cut up by a restriction enzyme; used in RFLP analysis, genome mapping, and other applications
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides
An individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes
genetically modified organism
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism
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