How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

78 terms

Psychology Test 2 Old Test Q's

STUDY
PLAY
self-serving
While those from Western cultures tend to have a strong self-serving bias, those from Eastern cultures tend to have a __________ bias.
prognosis
___________ is a forecast about the probable course of an illness.
self-discrepancy
A woman who describes herself as "frank and honest" but who, in fact lies frequently is manifesting her ______________.
blunting self-awareness
Substance use in response to feelings of self-discrepancy is an example of a type of coping technique known as ___________________.
atherosclerosis
_________________ is known to be the principal cause of coronary heart disease.
competition
The classic Robbers' Cave State Park study illustrates the correlation between prejudice and ____________.
pessimistic
People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a _____________ explanatory style.
Paul Ekman
_____________ and his colleagues have identified six primary emotions that have distinctive facial expressions.
stereotypes
The tendency of humans to categorize allows for cognitive processing, but also contributes to the creation of ____________.
noise
Bill's use of the word "broad" when referring to women offends Betty and makes it hard for her to follow his meaning. This type of miscommunication is called ____________.
physical fitness
Recent studies suggest that _____________ is associated with a decreased risk for:
-colon cancer in men
-breast cancer in women
-reproductive cancer in women
self-concept
An organized set of beliefs about one's personal qualities and typical behavior constitute one's ___________.
just world
Defensive attributions help people maintain belief in a "__________"
is compatible with
Persuasion tends to work best when the receiver's initial position on an issue ________________ the position advocated by the source.
aggressive or violent
Baumeister suggests that a narcissist who experiences an ego threat is likely to become ______________ or _____________.
social comparison
Research done by numerous investigators suggests that for individuals with similar talents, ___________ plays a critical role in the development of self-esteem.
facial expressions
The basic emotions are designated as such because the ___________________ associated with them are recognized across world cultures.
coronary heart disease
The Type A behavior person is most closely linked to the physical ailment ___________________.
Fritz Heider
_________________ was the first theorist to suggest that people tend to attribute behavior to either internal or external causes.
self-verification
The notion that people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self-views is called _______________.
downward social comparison
An individual who recently had preventive bypass surgery might think, "at least i didn't have a serious heart attack like my older brother did." This thinking exemplifies the strategy known as __________________.
easy-going
The characteristic most closely associated with Type B personality is _____________.
number
Most of us have a __________ of public selves.
situational factors
External attributions ascribe causes of behavior to _________________.
conformity
Asch found that group size had little influence on group __________ if just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.
causes of behavior
The attribution process refers to the inferences we make about the __________________.
self-fulfilling prophecy
The process whereby expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations is called the ____________________.
hostility
The component of Type A behavior that seems to be most responsible for the increased rate of heart attacks is ____________.
decreased
Studies of the immune system have found that stress is related to ____________ levels of immune activity.
short answers
Deception on the part of another person may be signaled by giving _____________.
stereotypes
All of these are reasons why _________ persist:
-cognitive functionality
-confirmation bias
-self-fulfilling prophecy
drinking
Excessive __________ is correlated with:
-heart disease
-brain disease
-cirrhosis of the liver
defensive attribution
_______________ is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.
michelangelo phenomenon
There is evidence that a close partner's support and affirmation can bring the loved one's actual self-views and behavior more in line with his/her ideal self. Researchers refer to this as the ________________.
proxemics
The study of people's use of interpersonal space is called __________.
credibility and likeability
Vicki is a persuasive, successful salesperson. It is most likely that she possesses the characteristics of ____________ and _________.
conformity
______________ is promoted by:
-normative influence
-ambiguity of the situation
-bystander effect
communication
Elements in the __________ process include:
-sender, message, distorting noise
facial displays
Among the display rules for men in many world cultures is found the pressure to inhibit __________ of emotion.
paralanguage
__________ includes all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself.
25-29.9
To be considered medically overweight, a person would have a BMI of _____-______.
sensitivity
Nonverbal __________ varies by all of the following: social competence, age, gender.
equity
Rather than high self-disclosure, the critical factor that helps couples avoid stress may be _______ in self-disclosure.
3500
In order to lose one pound in a given length of time, you must burn _______ more calories than you consume.
hard time
If you use self-control resources by resisting temptation in a given situation, you may have a _________ resisting the next temptation.
decode
In interpersonal communication, speaker is to encode as receiver is to ___________.
proximity and attractiveness
The great popularity of the internet as an arena for socializing has caused psychologists to reevaluate the importance of ____________ and __________ is relationship development.
personal
In explaining the causes of behavior, the fundamental attribution error refers to the overestimation of the role of ___________ factors.
confusion, knowledge
Nutritional deficiencies among americans are most likely a result of ___________ and lack of __________ about nutrition.
1981, 1969
Although the U.S. AIDS epidemic is commonly said to have stqarted in ____________, evidence indicates the disease may have first arrived here in _________.
possible
According to the book, ________ selves refer to one's conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future.
familiarity
The mere exposure effect is most closely associated with the factor of _____________ in initial attraction.
blunting self-awareness
Substance use in response to feelings of self-discrepancy is an example of a type of coping technique known as _________________.
comparison level
In social exchange theory, a _______________ refers to one's personal standard of what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs in a relationship.
self-discrepancy
A woman who describes herself as "frank and honest" but who, in fact, lies frequently is manifesting her _____________.
competition
The classic Robbers' Cave Park Study illustrates the correlation between prejudice and _____________.
pessimistic
People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting an _______________ explanatory style.
Paul Ekman
_________ and his colleagues have identified six primary emotions that have distinctive facial expressions.
stereotypes
The tendency of humans to categorize allows for cognitive processing, but also contributes to the creation of _____________.
empathy
Keisha's friends like to talk with her about their personal concerns because she seems to understand how they feel, and she never puts them down for their feelings. Keishas behavior exemplifies _____________.
self-concept
An organized set of beliefs about one's personal qualities and typical behavior constitutes one's __________.
is compatible with
Persuasion tends to work best when the receiver's initial position on an issue ____________ the position advocated by the source.
social comparison
Research done by numerous investigators suggests that for individuals with similar talents, ____________ plays a critical role in the development of self-esteem.
physical attractiveness
The matching hypothesis suggests that people of similar ______________ gravitate toward each other.
self-verification
The notion that people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self views is called _____________.
relationship maintenance
_______________ involves the action one takes to sustain the desirable qualities of a relationship.
public selves
Most of us have a number of _____________.
situational
External attributions ascribe causes of behavior to _________ factors.
causes of behavior
The attribution process refers to the inferences we make about the _____________.
consumate love
According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, when passion, intimacy, and commitment are all present in a relationship, then ______________ is said to exist
social exchange theory
The idea that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of rewards and costs is a key premise in the ______________
short answers
Deception on the part of another person may be signaled by giving _____________.
reciprocal liking
____________ refers to the fact that we tend to like others who like us?
defensive attribution
__________ is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.
emotionally, activity
In the United States, women's friendships are more often ____________ based, whereas men's tend to be ____________ based.
western
The notion that love is a prerequisite for marriage is a product of 18th century ________ culture.
men, women
Research findings suggest that _______ are more romantic, and _________ are more sensitive to problems that occur in relationships.
proximity
_________ refers to geographic, residential, and other forms of spatial closeness.