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modified hinge

tibiofemoral joint type

modified plan joint

patellofemoral joint

femoral condyles of the knee are more curved posteriorly, good for flexion (so tibia can roll into the rounded part), and less curved anteriorly which is good for weight bearing. medial condyle is more curved than lateral condyle, which is why the knee automatically rotates during flexion/extension

describe knee biomechanics

the femoral condyle rolls 15-20 degrees on the tibial condyle, then glides, producing a combined "rolling-gliding" movement.

describe the movement of the femoral condyle on the tibial condyle

protects the nee and quad tendon, most stable in flexion, least stable in lateral rotation

patella function

c shaped intra articular fibrocartilage discs. move with different movements of the knee. if mmt too fast may become crushed or torn.


quadriceps, and inserts on tibial tuberosity

patellar ligament is viewed as a continuation of the

biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus, gastroc, plantaris, tensor fascia latae

knee flexion

quads: rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis

knee extension


tibiofibular, talocrural, are this type of joint

ball and socket

subtalar and talocalcaneonavicular joint is


metatarsophalangeal joint type


interphalangeal joint type

gastroc, soleus, plantaris, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis

plantar flexion muscles

peroneus longus, peroneus brevis

eversion and plantar flex

tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus

medial foot muscles

extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallicus longus, peroneus tertius

foot dorsiflexors

flexor digitorum brevis and flexor hallucis brevis

toe flexors

adduction of toes

plantar interossei

abduction of toes

dorsal interossei

toe flexion

plantar and dorsal interossei

toe extension

lumbricals (dorsal)

toe flexion

plantar lumbricals


AROM flexion/plantar flexion


AROM extension/dorsiflexion


AROM supination/inversion


AROM pronation/eversion

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