129 terms

sensory system chapter 13

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Mechanoreceptors
Receptors stimulated by changes in pressure or movement of body fluids
receptor
a specialized arfea of a sensory neuron that detects a specific stimulus
chemoreceptors
receptors stimulated by chemical substances
photoreceptors
receptors stimulated by light
nociceptors
receptors stimulated by tissue damage also called pain receptors
thermoreceptors
receptors stimulated by changes in temperature
pain
nociceptors for this are free nerve endings that are stimulated by tissue damage caused by chemicals ischemia distention or distortion
proprioception
refers to the the sense of orientation or position allows you to locate a body part without looking at
temperature
heat and cold receptors detect this
touch
tactile receptors detect this
pressure
receptors for this are located in the subcutaneous tissue and in the deep tissue
pain
sensation you feel if you immerse your hand in boiling water
touch
sensation you feel if a tiny bug crawls along your hairy arm (CRYSTAL!!!! :P
)
cornea
anterior extesion of the sclera avascular structure that allows light to enter eye
sclera
outermost layer or tunic of the posterior eyeball
cornea
called the window of the eye
iris
colored protion of the eye
choroid
middle tunic has a rich supply of blood and nourishes the retina
lens
shape of this structure changes in response to contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscles it refracts light waves
canal of schlemm
venous sinus that drains aqueous humor
cornea
where contact lenses are placed
choroid
layer that extends anteriorly to form the ciliary body and the iris
aqueous humor
the fluid that helps maintain the shape of the anterior cavity
pupil
layer that contains the rods and cones
pupil
cicular opening in the center of the iris
optic disc
blind spot
aqueous humor
fluid that is formed by the ciliary body and drains through the canal of schlemm
suspensory ligaments
ciliary muscles attach to these bands of the connective tissue that pull on the lens
conjunctiva
mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and folds back to cover a part of the anterior surface of the eyeball
retina
layer that includes the macula lutea and fovea centralis
vitreous humor
gel like substance that fills the posterior cavity
ciliary body
structure that secretes aqueous humor and gives rise to intrinsic eye muscles called the cilary muscles
iris
composed of muscles that determine the size of the pupil
retina
layer that sends information along the optic nerve to the occipital lobe
pupil
opening that is controlled by the muscles of the iris
vitreous humor
gel like fluid that gently pushes the retina against the choroid
choroid
layer that contains melanocytes to diminish glare as light enters the posterior cavity
iris
contains the radial muscles and circular muscles
optic nerve
nerve that carries information from the photoreceptors to the primary visual cortex
optic nerve
cranial nerve (CN) II
optic nerve
sensory nerve for vision
levator palpebrae superioris
muscle that raises the eyelid
occipital lobe
location of the primary visual cortex
oculomotor nerve
elevated intracranial pressure compresses this nerve to cause ptosis of the eylid
extrinsic eye muslce
moves the eyeball in its socket
trochlear nerve
the meaning of the nummber 4 in LR6 SO4
abducens nerve
the meaning of 6 in LR6 SO4
extrinsic eye muscles
the structures indicated by LR and SO in LR6 SO4
oculomotor nerve
elevated intracranial pressure compress this nerve to cause fixed and dilated pupils
facial nerve
impaired nerve function that diminishes lacrimation and the ability to close the eye
cicular muscle
muscle that contracts to cause a miotic effect
radial muscle
muscle that contracts to cause mydriasis
ciliary muscle
muscle that contracts and relaxes to change the shape of the lens
facial nerve
reason for a weak blink
obicularis oculi
muscle that closes the eye
radial
widens pupil when contracts
iris
contain muscles that cause ydriasis and miosis
extrinsic eye muscles
includes the superior, inferior, medial, and lateral rectus; also includes the superior and inferior oblique
oculomotor nerve
nerve that controls all extrinsic eye muscles except the lateral rectus and superior oblique
extrinsic eye muscles
muscle that allows you to look towards ceiling without moving your head
cilary muscles
attaches to suspensory ligaments
otpic nerve
muscle that involves the optic chiasma
optic nerve
servering the nerve causes blindness
otpic nerve
nerve that contains only sensory fibers
ptosis
eye is not completely raised given person a sleepy appearance
conjuctivitis
pinkeye
presbyopia
an error of refraction described by an older adult who says that his or her arms are getting shorter
hordeolum
staphylococcal infection along the eyelid; also called sty
night blidness
deficiency of vitamin A that affects the functioning of the rods and makes it difficult to see in dim light
choked disc
swelling of the otpic disc (indication of increased intracranial pressure)
astigmatism
an error of refraction usually caused by a flattening or uneven curvature of the cornea
myopia
nearsightedness
strabismus
crossed eyes
glaucoma
a disease caused by intraocular pressure
detached retna
occurs when the nervous inner layer of the eye falls away from the choroid and is thereby deprived of an adequate blood supply
cataracts
clouding of lens that impairs the transmission of light
glaucoma
consequense of impaired drainage of aqueous humor
inner ear
location of the semicircular canals, cochlea, and vestibule
middle ear
location of the hammer anvil and stirrup
inner ear
ototoxicity occurs here
external ear
location of the auditory canal and cerumen
middle ear
eustachian tube connects to pharynx with this part of ear
inner ear
location of the organ of corti
external ear
tympanic membrane separates the middle ear from this part of the ear
inner ear
CN VIII originates within this part of the ear
middle ear
otitis media occurs here
middle ear
locatio of the malleus, incus, and stapes
inner ear
Meneire's disease occurs here
middle ear
vibration of bone occurs here
inner ear
location of labrynth, perilyph, and endolyph
inner ear
nerve conduction deafness occurs here
external ear
location of auricle or, pinna
inner ear
"Rock and Roll" deafness occurs here
stapes
ossicle that sits in the oval window and transmits vibrations to the inner ear
eustachian
ossicle that connects the middle ear with the the throat
malleus
ossicle that picks up vibrations from eardrum
tympanic membrane
ossicle that separates the external ear from middle ear
incus
ossicle located between the malleus and stapes
stapes
ossicle called the stirrup or stapes
external auditory canal
long tube like structure that is part of the external ear
middle ear
otitis media occurs here
middle ear
glue ear occurs here
temporal bone
bone that contains the external auditory meatus
malleus
ossicle called the malleus or hammer
choclea
nerve conduction deafness affects this strnucture
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
hearing is impaired when cerumen is packed against this structure
projection
most related to phantom limb pain
olfactory receptors
adapt most rapidly
pain
most related to the spinothalamic tract, thalamus, and nociceptors
tears
prevent corneal ulceration
refraction is accomplished when
light rays are bent
All the extrinsic muscles
move the eyeball in the socket
Wich of the following is not true about the retina
covers the optic disc making it the area of most acute vision
Myopia, astigmatism, and hyperopia are all
errors of refraction
The malleus, incus, and stapes
are ossicles located in the middle ear
What happens at the optic chiasm?
fibers of the optic nerve of each eye cross and project to the opposite side of the brain
When drainage of the canal of Schlemm is impaired,
intraocular pressure increases.
Which of the following is most associated with the rods?
night vision
Which of the following is most associated with sense of hearing?
organ of Corti
What is the result of the contraction of the radial muscles of the eye?
mydriasis
Which of the following is least related to the middle ear
cochlea
What causes ototoxicity?
damage of the cochlear nerve
Accommodation
Refers to the reflex ability of the lens to change its shape as an object moves closer to the eyelid
Because the pituitary gland is located behind the optic chiasm, a pituitary tumor is most likely to cause
a disturbance in vision
Which of the following is a blance-related inner ear structure?
semicircular canal
Which of the following is least descriptive of the organ of Corti?
eustachian tube
Where is the primary auditory cortex located?
temporal lobe
The eustachian tube connects the
pharynx with the middle ear
This guy has bad taste
Gus T.A. tory
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