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Terms in this set (25)
"America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain.
America's task in WWII was more complex because now they have to fight in a two front war, one against Japan over the Pacific and one against Germany over the Atlantic. America was also torn between which side to focus the war against, because of Pearl Harbor, America wanted to go to war with Japan and defeat them first, however it was more strategic and important to defend Britain against Germany, saving more allies for the war in the European front. America also had to prepare itself for total war, mobilizing its industry and to ship soldiers and create a massive army to use in both sides of the conflicts to help its allies.
How did the war affect liberal ideals and goals at home?
The war ended some of the liberal ideas during the time at home, stopping many of the New Deal programs and also focused all the jobs on the war effort. Most notably, America was once again united in race, except for the Japanese, who were sent to Internment Camps along the west coast. The government's reasoning for such actions was to protect the Japanese people from angry Americans on the streets but it was actually because they were afraid of spies within the people. The internment camps were made legal for the moment by the Korematsu v. US case, in which the court upheld the camps.
What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor?
The war changed America industrially because it allowed America to enter total war, and have the government take control over much of the aspects of industry in America. It also ended the Great Depression. The War Production Board took over the industry, and stopped production of many products that were not necessary for war. Rubber was also conserved more, because it was needed in the war but much of the rubber shipments were taken over by Japanese soldiers. There was also the War Labor Board which reduced the wages so that the prices of products can be lower, and also made an agreement with many of the labor unions so that they wouldn't strike.
the name for Japan's new government that launched the country into ambitious industrialization and militarization
In what way can it be said that the reason's for Japanese immigrants' success also caused them trouble?
The Japanese were extremely successful in America because after Matthew Perry came to Japan and opened its ports, the Meiji government was very selective of its people they sent overseas because they were representatives of the Japanese nation. They came to America with more money, better education and also more women. The Japanese excelled at farming, and came to California, and soon became the most successful farmers in the area. White farmers became jealous and it was easier for them to attack the Japanese due to that, causing them problems.
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.
What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war?
Due to the conscription draft, many men were not a home, and thus women were able to get their first jobs outside of the house. Not only did women work in the industry, but there were also some women served in the military, including the WAACS, WAVES, and SPARS. Only about a fifth of a million women servced in the military. The symbol for a women working was Rosie the Riveter, a girl with her sleeves rolled up and a rivet gun in her hand. After the war though, many women went back to doing their home jobs
A. Philip Randolph
Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
state and local laws governing eeo that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities?
The war had a rioting effect on the nation's minorities, encouraging them to move from the South, especially the blacks, so that they could start new lives. Cotton picking was mechanized, thus many of the blacks moved West and North in search of new jobs. A. Philip Randolph led a protest in hopes to get colored people into the defence, in which FDR responded by letting them. He also passed the Fair Employment Practices Commission, so that now businesses cannot really discriminate based on color. Some were allowed to join the defences, in separate regiments thus starting the Double V, a victory overseas and a victory at home. Native-Americans were also given jobs in the defence as code talkers, which used their native language as a code to relay a message.
What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war?
Due to the war, America was lifted from its depression when it entered the war during a depression. The war caused profits to double, and also the Gross National Product to double. However, it left the nation with a terrible debt because of the high costs of the war, and also an inflation occurred It caused America to tax its people heavily, but also relied on credit, thus effectively raising the national debt from $49 billion to over $259 billion.
Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese victories over in the Pacific were concise and precise, taking over an island after island, or country by country. They took over Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Hong Kong and also mainland China and many other islands. The loss of Philippines for America was embarrassing, having General MacArthur flee the island and soon surrendering Corregidor, a fort in Manila and also having Americans march the Bataan Death March, a march of 85 miles in which if you stumbled, the Japanese soldiers would kill you.
Why was Midway an important battle?
US and Japan fought in battles overseas, and the first major one was the Battle of the Coral Sea, in which both sides suffered heavy casualties, and was a war in which none of the boats ever saw each other and fought with planes. without ever being in the line of sight with each other. The Battle of Midway was supposed to be a surprise attack by the Japanese on the Americans at Midway, but it was intercepted and America sent ships there to defend, and surprised the Japanese, sinking 4 of their carriers and winning the battle. It was the battle that stopped Japanese expansion.
What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese?
The American strategy to defeat the Japanese was to island hop around Japan, not to attack their country directly but to take over all the islands around it and surround them and hopefully starve them to surrender. It was led General MacArthur and also Admiral Chester Nimitz. They took over many of the surrounding islands, including the Marianas Islands, which would later be the launch point for the 2 atomic bombs. The island hopping was a slow and steady idea that sacrificed the lives of many, because it required heavy navy shelling from offshore and then marines going up the island to capture it, while it was being shelled.
"The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain.
The war against Hitler looked much better later in 1942 than in the beginning because there were many turning points in the war during the middle of the year. One of which was the sacrifice of many American spies to obtain the Enigma Machine, a machine which broke the codes of the German U-Subs, and revealed much of their locations allowing them to win the war on the sea. After that, Britain and America began to bomb Germany together, with Britain attacking Cologne, France, where Germany took over, and America bombing Germany itself. Also, Russia at Stalingrad pushed the German forces back after the winter, gaining about two-thirds of what they lost back.
Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa.
The purpose of the Invasion of North Africa was to open a new front so that Germany did not have to focus its military efforts on Russia only, which was causing many Russian casualties. The US and Britain agreed to opening a second front, but had different approaches to how it should be done, and finally agreed on the soft underbelly approach. Having General Dwight D. Eisenhower lead the charge in North Africa, it did distract Germany to focus her efforts to help out Italy and also protect its own land in Africa.
Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war?
June 6, 1944 was considered the turning point of the war because it was the biggest victory for the Allies since the war has begin, and was also the begin of the decline of Germany. The Tehran Conference was a meeting in which the leaders of the Allied nations would meet up and draw out coordinated attacks against Germany, which would later become known as D-Day. D-Day was an attack on the beach front of Normandy, and was the biggest victory because it helped liberate France from Germany's control, especially Paris, thus recovering the French.
Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944?
The choice for the vice-presidential candidate was important and difficult because there was no extremely viable option for them other than FDR, who was already running as President for his fourth time. The Republicans picked out Thomas Dewey, who was known for being against corruption and also was a liberal. In the end, the Dems chose Harry S Truman as their VP candidate because he had the least amount of enemies in the political scene.
What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey?
Roosevelt's victory over Dewey was attributed mostly because the war was going well for the US and FDR was already in the presidency when Americans were winning the war, causing a rush of good feelings that benefited FDR. If he were to be losing, then he would have easily lost the election. Dewey's campaign mostly focused on attacking FDR and tried to make him look like the bad guy, who has been in the office for 12 yaers. Also, Roosevelt was also funded by the PAC, an organization that was set up to avoid the ban of giving politicians money through a group.
Describe the last six months of war in Europe.
The last six months of war in Europe was a decisive victory for the allies. Hitler saw that the Battle of Berlin was the last chance for the Germany army, and even then it was still unlikely for Germany to win it, so he killed himself and his wife too. The American and British army pushed through the German forces easily, since Hitler called them out to spread out and try to stall the armies so he can prepare his suicide, because he knew that they were going to go down. Russia was also closing in to Berlin from the Eastern front, and also surrounded Germany. They saw the horrors of the holocaust when they entered closer to Berlin.
Explain the meaning of the title of this section.
The meaning of the title is that Japan was pretty much killing themselves and dying nearing the end of the war. American submarines were devastating Japanese merchant ships and also Japan was losing an island by island, as American troops took over the lands, and General MacArthur was obsessed with winning the Philippines back. Americans soon took over Iwo Jima, a strategic airstrip that was located near Japan, and also later Okinawa, another island that was right in front of Japan's main islands. Japan soon was desperate and began using kamikaze pilots, thus showing how Japan was dying hard.
What was the military impact of the atomic bomb?
The military impact of the Atomic Bomb was that it would soon revolutionize the bomb. The atomic bomb was approved solely because of the fear that Germany would produce one before them, and it was all carried out in secret. The Manhattan Project had many Germany scientists that escaped Nazi Germany. When the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, it ended up with up to 180,000 casualties, and seriously weakened Japan's morale, but yet still no surrenders. However, Nagasaki did the job and the Emperor Hirohito finally surrendered to America.
"This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain
This war was best fought in America's history because America suffered the least total casualties, compared to other nations, and also had nothing in its homeland touched, due to its distance from Europe and Asia. It also boosted America's industry and America soon became a world super power, having saved Europe again after joining the war. America soon was the only country that actually benefited from the war, and emerged as a stronger nation as opposed to the other nations.
What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer?
Historians tried to answer questions such as why did America drop the 2 bombs on Japan even though it seemed that victory was eminent. It was thought that President Truman wanted to scare off and isolate the Soviet Union by showing the power of the bomb, and it would later be the proving point that America was not to be messed with. Could the use of the atomic bombs have been avoided? it was a question that many historians thought of, and it was a deep moral question.
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