How does communication contribute to physical health?
Without communication, we cannot survive. When we don't have human interaction with others, our physical health can suffer
treats communication as a two-way process; suggests that receivers provide feedback thru verbal and nonverbal behavior and the context of communication affects its meaning
treats communication as a multi-way process and suggests that both parties in conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers and communication flows in both directions at once.
In the Interaction Model, receivers provide _____ thru _______ and ________ behavior.
feedback; verbal and nonverbal
In the Transaction Model, both parties in conversation are simultaneously _______ and _______.
senders and receivers
signals about the relationship in which the message is being communicated
relational implication of communication
describes how well your communication complies with the rules and expectations of the social situation
being able to assess what is going on to be appropriate and effective in a given context and then modify behaviors accordingly
the system of learned and shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another
are groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenship
People in ___-_____ cultures are taught to communicate directly and to "say what they mean"
People in ____-_____ cultures are taught to convey meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues rather than through verbal directness
People in __-____-_____ cultures believe that no one person or group should have excessive power
In ___-____-_____ cultures, certain groups have great power and the average citizen has much less
People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally masculine values and believe in sex-differentiated roles
People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally feminine values and tend not to believe in sex-differentiated roles
People in _____-______ cultures are drawn to the familiar and are relatively unlikely to take risks
People in _____-______ cultures are open to novel situations and are accepting of people and ideas that are different from their own
describes individuals who conflict between the sex they were born into and the sex they feel they should be
people that are born with internal organs that do not match their external appearance (i.e. born with a penis, but have ovaries instead of testies)
individuals who have undergone surgical procedures to bring their physical body in line with their self-image
shorter sentences, more sentence fragments, more references to "I" and "me," more references to quantity
Masculine Linguistic Style
In emotional communication, women express more ______ emotion, and men express more ______ emotion.
According to the Johari Window, there are aspects of our personalities that others can see in us but that we are unaware of. These are known as the ____ aspects of ourselves.
Factors that affect our self-concept:
personality and biology, culture and gender roles, reflected appraisal, social comparison
3 fundamental needs with respect to self-esteem:
-need for control
-need for inclusion
-need for affection
the act of intentionally giving others information about ourselves that we believe to be true but we think they don't already have
Benefits of self-disclosure:
-Enhancement of relationships and trust
-Assistance to others
Risks of self-disclosure:
-Chance of obligating others
-Hurt to others
-Violation of other people's privacy
-Risks of disclosing online
the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them.
Factors that affect the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions
-Physiological states and traits
-Culture and co-culture
Characteristics of language:
-governed by rules
-layers of meaning
-varies in clarity
-bound by context and culture
Power of Language: 5 important contexts:
-Credibility and Power
How does persuasion appeal to ethos?
relies on a speaker's respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character
Several forms of language can enhance or diminish credibility:
a form of profanity meant to degrade or intimate people based on their:
Political or moral view
Ways to improve language use:
-Shared knowledge errors
-Shared opinion errors
includes those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words
10 channels of nonverbal communication:
-movement and gestures
-use of smell
-use of space
-use of time (chronemics)
-use of artifacts
Sex influences nonverbal behavior by:
Interpreting nonverbal behavior:
-Be sensitive to nonverbal messages
-Decipher the meaning of nonverbal messages
Expressing nonverbal messages:
-Spend time with highly expressive people
-Participate in games that exercise your nonverbal expression skills
Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to appear unsophisticated or socially awkward. True/False
People raised in a/an _________ culture are taught to believe that all people are equal and that no one person or group should have excessive power.
People from the southern United States often "Y'all" when referring to others; however, people from other parts of the U.S. do not typically use that term. For people from the South, this is an example of:
in-group language use
The phrase "looking out for number one" is reflective of the collectivistic cultural viewpoint. True/False
Researchers Ann King and Albert Gordon have found that when it comes to sex differences and emotions, men and women vary greatly in their emotional experiences. True/False
According to your text, the perception-making process consists of three stages. Which of the following in NOT among them?
Angela had just been promoted to department chair at the college where she taught. Although she treated everyone the same, several of the male professors in the department were put off by Angela's requests. As a result, the female professors thought of Angela as fair and equitable in her treatment, but the male professors began resenting her and openly challenging her position on several issues. The male professors probably treated Angela that way because:
they perceived Angela's professional position as masculine and socially threatening
Your senses are unable to attend every stimulus in the environment at the same time. True/False
To an American, the phrase, "How are you today?" sounds correct whereas the phrase, "Today how are you?" sounds incorrect. The second phrase violates which rule of language?
Words that evoke strongly positive or negative connotations are known collectively as:
Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and who do not belong to their social networks True/False
Contemporary research suggests that approximately this percentage of meaning is transmitted nonverbally:
Which of the following emotional states was NOT identified by Paul Ekman as having a universal facial expression?