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166 terms

Interpersonal Communication Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
How does communication contribute to physical health?
Without communication, we cannot survive. When we don't have human interaction with others, our physical health can suffer

-touch
needs for companionship, affection, relaxation, and escape
Relational Needs
the way we communicate with others shapes how we see ourselves
Identity Needs
treats communication as a one-way process
Action Model
In the Action Model, a _____ formulates and idea.
source
In the Action Model, the source ______ the idea in the form of a ______.
encodes;message
In the Action Model, the message is sent thru a communication ________.
channel
In the Action Model, a _______ decodes the message.
receiver
In the Action Model, interpretation is affected by _____.
noise
treats communication as a two-way process; suggests that receivers provide feedback thru verbal and nonverbal behavior and the context of communication affects its meaning
Interaction Model
treats communication as a multi-way process and suggests that both parties in conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers and communication flows in both directions at once.
Transaction Model
In the Interaction Model, receivers provide _____ thru _______ and ________ behavior.
feedback; verbal and nonverbal
In the Interaction Model, the ______ of communication affects its meaning.
context
In the Transaction Model, both parties in conversation are simultaneously _______ and _______.
senders and receivers
In the Transaction Model, communication flows __ ____ _______ at once.
in both directions
Who gives communication its meaning?
People
Language is ______.
arbitrary
Our language is a representation of _____, not the ____ itself.
ideas; idea
the content of the message
literal meaning
signals about the relationship in which the message is being communicated
relational implication of communication
describes how well your communication achieves its goals
Effectiveness
describes how well your communication complies with the rules and expectations of the social situation
Appropriateness
awareness of one's behavior and how it affects others
Self-Monitoring
pay close attention to the way they look, sound, and act in social situations
high self-monitors
are oblivious to their own behaviors and other people's reactions to them
low self-monitors
being able to assess what is going on to be appropriate and effective in a given context and then modify behaviors accordingly
Adaptability
the system of learned and shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another
Culture
the groups of people with whom we identify
In-Groups
groups we see as different from ourselves
Out-Groups
Cultures vary in their _______, ________, ______, and ______.
symbols, languages, values, and norms
are groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenship
Co-Cultures
believe their responsibility is to themselves
Individualistic Cultures
believe their responsibility is to their communities
Collectivistic Cultures
People in ___-_____ cultures are taught to communicate directly and to "say what they mean"
low-context
People in ____-_____ cultures are taught to convey meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues rather than through verbal directness
high-context
People in __-____-_____ cultures believe that no one person or group should have excessive power
low-power-distance cultures
In ___-____-_____ cultures, certain groups have great power and the average citizen has much less
high-power-distance
People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally masculine values and believe in sex-differentiated roles
masculine
People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally feminine values and tend not to believe in sex-differentiated roles
feminine
People in _____-______ cultures are drawn to the familiar and are relatively unlikely to take risks
uncertainty-avoiding
People in _____-______ cultures are open to novel situations and are accepting of people and ideas that are different from their own
uncertainty-accepting
People in ______ cultures view time as a finite commodity
monochronic
People in ______ cultures view time as more holistic and fluid and less structured
polychronic
_____ are phrases whose meaning is purely figurative
Idioms
_____ is language whose technical meaning is understood by people within a co-culture
Jargon
______ are movements that express ideas
Gestures
Gender is a function of :
gender roles, biological sex, and sexual orientation
_____ ____ are culturally constructed norms for how men and women are expected to act
Gender roles
3 types of gender:
masculinity, femininity, androgyny
Biological sex is affected by:
psychology, genetics, anatomy
_____ ________ describes the sex or sexes to whom we are attracted
Sexual orientation
Types of sexual orientations:
Heterosexuality
Homosexuality
Bisexuality
Asexuality
a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other sex
Heterosexuality
a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one's own sex
Homosexuality
a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both men and women
Bisexuality
a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex
Asexuality
describes individuals who conflict between the sex they were born into and the sex they feel they should be
Transgendered
people that are born with internal organs that do not match their external appearance (i.e. born with a penis, but have ovaries instead of testies)
Intersex
individuals who have undergone surgical procedures to bring their physical body in line with their self-image
Transsexual
communication is seen as a primary way to establish closeness
Expressive Talk
communication is seen as a means to solve problems and accomplish tasks
Instrumental Talk
talking more, interrupting more frequently
More-Powerful Speech
asking more questions, using hedges ("sort of," "might be")
Less-Powerful Speech
shorter sentences, more sentence fragments, more references to "I" and "me," more references to quantity
Masculine Linguistic Style
longer sentences, more qualifiers, more references to "we" and "they"
Feminine Linguistic Style
In emotional communication, women express more ______ emotion, and men express more ______ emotion.
positive; negative
Among adults, ____-___ touch is more common than ____-___ touch.
other-sex; same-sex
In same-sex pairs, women touch each other ____ than men do.
more
Among adults, women use ____ affection behaviors than men do.
more
Your ____-_____ reflects your stable ideas about who you are.
self-concept
Your self-concept is your _____.
identity
Self-concepts are multifaceted. True/False
True
Self-concepts are never subjective.
False. (Answer: partly subjective)
Self-concepts are enduring but ______.
changeable
According to the Johari Window, there are aspects of our personalities that others can see in us but that we are unaware of. These are known as the ____ aspects of ourselves.
blind
Factors that affect our self-concept:
personality and biology, culture and gender roles, reflected appraisal, social comparison
We manage our self-concepts thru ____-________.
self-monitoring
_____-_______ ______ can reinforce our self-concepts.
Self-fulfilling prophecies
this is your subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem is affected by ____ and ___.
culture and sex
3 fundamental needs with respect to self-esteem:
-need for control
-need for inclusion
-need for affection
adjusting our behavior to project a desired image
Image Management
Image management is ______ and _____.
collaborative and complex
With image management, we manage _____ ______.
multiple identities
3 Face Needs:
-Fellowship Face
-Autonomy Face
-Competence Face
the act of intentionally giving others information about ourselves that we believe to be true but we think they don't already have
Self-Disclosure
Self-disclosure is ______ and _____.
intentional and truthful
Self-disclosure varies in _____ and _____.
breadth and depth
What roles influence self-disclosure?
cultural and gender
Benefits of self-disclosure:
-Enhancement of relationships and trust
-Reciprocity
-Emotional release
-Assistance to others
Risks of self-disclosure:
-Rejection
-Chance of obligating others
-Hurt to others
-Violation of other people's privacy
-Risks of disclosing online
the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them.
Interpersonal Perception
3 stages of perception:
-Selection
-Organization
-Interpretation
what we choose to pay attention to
Selection stage in Perception process
how we classify the stimulus
Organization stage in Perception process
what meaning we assign to the stimulus
Interpretation stage in Perception Process
Factors that affect the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions
-Physiological states and traits
-Culture and co-culture
-Social roles
our first impression of someone overshadows our later impressions of the person
Primacy Effect
our most recent impression of someone is more powerful than earlier impressions
Recency Effect
a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive
Perceptual Set
the inability to take another person's perspective
Egocentrism
the explanations we give for our own and other people's behaviors
Attributions
Attributions vary according to their:
-Locus
-Stability
-Controllability
Other people's behaviors are due to internal, stable causes
Fundamental Attribution Error
Ways to improve our perceptual abilities:
-be mindful
-check your perceptions
a structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning
language
Characteristics of language:
-symbolic
-arbitrary
-governed by rules
-layers of meaning
-varies in clarity
-bound by context and culture
Language is never ambiguous. True/False
False. (Answer: Some language is ambiguous)
Language varies in ______.
abstraction
______ language comprises words with strongly positive or negative connotative meanings.
Loaded
The denotative meanings of loaded language may be ________ ______.
emotionally neutral
Language is bound by _____ and _____.
context and culture
_____ define and differentiate us.
Names
We make assumptions about people on the basis of their names. True/False
True
Power of Language: 5 important contexts:
-Naming
-Persuasion
-Credibility and Power
-Affection
-Comfort
How does persuasion appeal to ethos?
relies on a speaker's respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character
How does persuasion appeal to pathos?
relies on listeners' emotions
How does persuasion appeal to logos?
relies on listeners' ability to reason
the extent to which others perceive us to be competent and trustworthy
Credibility
Credibility empowers us. True/False
True
Several forms of language can enhance or diminish credibility:
Clichés
Dialects
Equivocation
Weasel words
Allness statements
Humor violates ______.
expectations
Humor can enhance/decrease communication.
enhance
Humor can be harmful. True/False
True.
vague, mild expressions symbolizing something more harsh or blunt
Euphemisms
comprises informal words often understood only by others in a particular group
Slang
defamatory statements made about others
Libel and Slander
a defamatory statement made in print or some other fixed medium
Libel
a defamatory statement made aloud, within earshot of others
Slander
rude or obscene language
Profanity
a form of profanity meant to degrade or intimate people based on their:
Sex
Ethnicity
Religion
Sexual orientation
Disability status
Political or moral view
Hate Speech
Ways to improve language use:
Avoid:
-Shared knowledge errors
-Shared opinion errors
-Monopolization errors
includes those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words
Nonverbal Communication
Some nonverbal communication behaviors _____ words.
accompany
Nonverbal communication is the primary means of expressing emotion. True/False
True
10 channels of nonverbal communication:
-facial displays
-eye behaviors
-movement and gestures
-touch behaviors
-vocal behaviors
-use of smell
-use of space
-physical appearance
-use of time (chronemics)
-use of artifacts
study of touch
Haptics
study of movement
Kinesics
eye behaviors
Oculesics
the study of smell
Olfactics
says we attribute positive qualities to attractive people
Halo Effect
Culture influences nonverbal behavior by:
greeting behavior, time orientations, touch, vocalics
Sex influences nonverbal behavior by:
Emotional expressiveness
Eye contact
Personal space
Vocalics
Touch
Appearance
Interpreting nonverbal behavior:
-Be sensitive to nonverbal messages
-Decipher the meaning of nonverbal messages
Expressing nonverbal messages:
-Spend time with highly expressive people
-Participate in games that exercise your nonverbal expression skills
Your own understanding of who you are as a person comprises you:
self-concept
The way you tend to think and act in most situations defines your:
personality
Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to appear unsophisticated or socially awkward. True/False
True
Scientific studies have confirmed that girls have lower self-esteem than boys. True/False
False
People raised in a/an _________ culture are taught to believe that all people are equal and that no one person or group should have excessive power.
low-power distance
The U.S. American phrase "a dime a dozen" is an example of a cultural idiom. True/False
True
People from the southern United States often "Y'all" when referring to others; however, people from other parts of the U.S. do not typically use that term. For people from the South, this is an example of:
in-group language use
The phrase "looking out for number one" is reflective of the collectivistic cultural viewpoint. True/False
False
Researchers Ann King and Albert Gordon have found that when it comes to sex differences and emotions, men and women vary greatly in their emotional experiences. True/False
False
According to your text, the perception-making process consists of three stages. Which of the following in NOT among them?
Attribution
Angela had just been promoted to department chair at the college where she taught. Although she treated everyone the same, several of the male professors in the department were put off by Angela's requests. As a result, the female professors thought of Angela as fair and equitable in her treatment, but the male professors began resenting her and openly challenging her position on several issues. The male professors probably treated Angela that way because:
they perceived Angela's professional position as masculine and socially threatening
Your senses are unable to attend every stimulus in the environment at the same time. True/False
True
The stages of perception happen in a very ordered and linear fashion. True/False
False
To an American, the phrase, "How are you today?" sounds correct whereas the phrase, "Today how are you?" sounds incorrect. The second phrase violates which rule of language?
Syntactical
Words that evoke strongly positive or negative connotations are known collectively as:
loaded language
This persuasion strategy takes advantage of the speaker's credibility:
appeal to ethos
Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and who do not belong to their social networks True/False
True
Contemporary research suggests that approximately this percentage of meaning is transmitted nonverbally:
65-70%
Which of the following emotional states was NOT identified by Paul Ekman as having a universal facial expression?
jealousy
Arousal is an increase in energy. True/False
True
People tend to be most attracted to others whose natural body odors are different from their own. True/False
True