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How does communication contribute to physical health?

Without communication, we cannot survive. When we don't have human interaction with others, our physical health can suffer


needs for companionship, affection, relaxation, and escape

Relational Needs

the way we communicate with others shapes how we see ourselves

Identity Needs

treats communication as a one-way process

Action Model

In the Action Model, a _____ formulates and idea.


In the Action Model, the source ______ the idea in the form of a ______.


In the Action Model, the message is sent thru a communication ________.


In the Action Model, a _______ decodes the message.


In the Action Model, interpretation is affected by _____.


treats communication as a two-way process; suggests that receivers provide feedback thru verbal and nonverbal behavior and the context of communication affects its meaning

Interaction Model

treats communication as a multi-way process and suggests that both parties in conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers and communication flows in both directions at once.

Transaction Model

In the Interaction Model, receivers provide _____ thru _______ and ________ behavior.

feedback; verbal and nonverbal

In the Interaction Model, the ______ of communication affects its meaning.


In the Transaction Model, both parties in conversation are simultaneously _______ and _______.

senders and receivers

In the Transaction Model, communication flows __ ____ _______ at once.

in both directions

Who gives communication its meaning?


Language is ______.


Our language is a representation of _____, not the ____ itself.

ideas; idea

the content of the message

literal meaning

signals about the relationship in which the message is being communicated

relational implication of communication

describes how well your communication achieves its goals


describes how well your communication complies with the rules and expectations of the social situation


awareness of one's behavior and how it affects others


pay close attention to the way they look, sound, and act in social situations

high self-monitors

are oblivious to their own behaviors and other people's reactions to them

low self-monitors

being able to assess what is going on to be appropriate and effective in a given context and then modify behaviors accordingly


the system of learned and shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another


the groups of people with whom we identify


groups we see as different from ourselves


Cultures vary in their _______, ________, ______, and ______.

symbols, languages, values, and norms

are groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenship


believe their responsibility is to themselves

Individualistic Cultures

believe their responsibility is to their communities

Collectivistic Cultures

People in ___-_____ cultures are taught to communicate directly and to "say what they mean"


People in ____-_____ cultures are taught to convey meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues rather than through verbal directness


People in __-____-_____ cultures believe that no one person or group should have excessive power

low-power-distance cultures

In ___-____-_____ cultures, certain groups have great power and the average citizen has much less


People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally masculine values and believe in sex-differentiated roles


People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally feminine values and tend not to believe in sex-differentiated roles


People in _____-______ cultures are drawn to the familiar and are relatively unlikely to take risks


People in _____-______ cultures are open to novel situations and are accepting of people and ideas that are different from their own


People in ______ cultures view time as a finite commodity


People in ______ cultures view time as more holistic and fluid and less structured


_____ are phrases whose meaning is purely figurative


_____ is language whose technical meaning is understood by people within a co-culture


______ are movements that express ideas


Gender is a function of :

gender roles, biological sex, and sexual orientation

_____ ____ are culturally constructed norms for how men and women are expected to act

Gender roles

3 types of gender:

masculinity, femininity, androgyny

Biological sex is affected by:

psychology, genetics, anatomy

_____ ________ describes the sex or sexes to whom we are attracted

Sexual orientation

Types of sexual orientations:


a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other sex


a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one's own sex


a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both men and women


a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex


describes individuals who conflict between the sex they were born into and the sex they feel they should be


people that are born with internal organs that do not match their external appearance (i.e. born with a penis, but have ovaries instead of testies)


individuals who have undergone surgical procedures to bring their physical body in line with their self-image


communication is seen as a primary way to establish closeness

Expressive Talk

communication is seen as a means to solve problems and accomplish tasks

Instrumental Talk

talking more, interrupting more frequently

More-Powerful Speech

asking more questions, using hedges ("sort of," "might be")

Less-Powerful Speech

shorter sentences, more sentence fragments, more references to "I" and "me," more references to quantity

Masculine Linguistic Style

longer sentences, more qualifiers, more references to "we" and "they"

Feminine Linguistic Style

In emotional communication, women express more ______ emotion, and men express more ______ emotion.

positive; negative

Among adults, ____-___ touch is more common than ____-___ touch.

other-sex; same-sex

In same-sex pairs, women touch each other ____ than men do.


Among adults, women use ____ affection behaviors than men do.


Your ____-_____ reflects your stable ideas about who you are.


Your self-concept is your _____.


Self-concepts are multifaceted. True/False


Self-concepts are never subjective.

False. (Answer: partly subjective)

Self-concepts are enduring but ______.


According to the Johari Window, there are aspects of our personalities that others can see in us but that we are unaware of. These are known as the ____ aspects of ourselves.


Factors that affect our self-concept:

personality and biology, culture and gender roles, reflected appraisal, social comparison

We manage our self-concepts thru ____-________.


_____-_______ ______ can reinforce our self-concepts.

Self-fulfilling prophecies

this is your subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person


Self-esteem is affected by ____ and ___.

culture and sex

3 fundamental needs with respect to self-esteem:

-need for control
-need for inclusion
-need for affection

adjusting our behavior to project a desired image

Image Management

Image management is ______ and _____.

collaborative and complex

With image management, we manage _____ ______.

multiple identities

3 Face Needs:

-Fellowship Face
-Autonomy Face
-Competence Face

the act of intentionally giving others information about ourselves that we believe to be true but we think they don't already have


Self-disclosure is ______ and _____.

intentional and truthful

Self-disclosure varies in _____ and _____.

breadth and depth

What roles influence self-disclosure?

cultural and gender

Benefits of self-disclosure:

-Enhancement of relationships and trust
-Emotional release
-Assistance to others

Risks of self-disclosure:

-Chance of obligating others
-Hurt to others
-Violation of other people's privacy
-Risks of disclosing online

the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them.

Interpersonal Perception

3 stages of perception:


what we choose to pay attention to

Selection stage in Perception process

how we classify the stimulus

Organization stage in Perception process

what meaning we assign to the stimulus

Interpretation stage in Perception Process

Factors that affect the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions

-Physiological states and traits
-Culture and co-culture
-Social roles

our first impression of someone overshadows our later impressions of the person

Primacy Effect

our most recent impression of someone is more powerful than earlier impressions

Recency Effect

a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive

Perceptual Set

the inability to take another person's perspective


the explanations we give for our own and other people's behaviors


Attributions vary according to their:


Other people's behaviors are due to internal, stable causes

Fundamental Attribution Error

Ways to improve our perceptual abilities:

-be mindful
-check your perceptions

a structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning


Characteristics of language:

-governed by rules
-layers of meaning
-varies in clarity
-bound by context and culture

Language is never ambiguous. True/False

False. (Answer: Some language is ambiguous)

Language varies in ______.


______ language comprises words with strongly positive or negative connotative meanings.


The denotative meanings of loaded language may be ________ ______.

emotionally neutral

Language is bound by _____ and _____.

context and culture

_____ define and differentiate us.


We make assumptions about people on the basis of their names. True/False


Power of Language: 5 important contexts:

-Credibility and Power

How does persuasion appeal to ethos?

relies on a speaker's respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character

How does persuasion appeal to pathos?

relies on listeners' emotions

How does persuasion appeal to logos?

relies on listeners' ability to reason

the extent to which others perceive us to be competent and trustworthy


Credibility empowers us. True/False


Several forms of language can enhance or diminish credibility:

Weasel words
Allness statements

Humor violates ______.


Humor can enhance/decrease communication.


Humor can be harmful. True/False


vague, mild expressions symbolizing something more harsh or blunt


comprises informal words often understood only by others in a particular group


defamatory statements made about others

Libel and Slander

a defamatory statement made in print or some other fixed medium


a defamatory statement made aloud, within earshot of others


rude or obscene language


a form of profanity meant to degrade or intimate people based on their:
Sexual orientation
Disability status
Political or moral view

Hate Speech

Ways to improve language use:

-Shared knowledge errors
-Shared opinion errors
-Monopolization errors

includes those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words

Nonverbal Communication

Some nonverbal communication behaviors _____ words.


Nonverbal communication is the primary means of expressing emotion. True/False


10 channels of nonverbal communication:

-facial displays
-eye behaviors
-movement and gestures
-touch behaviors
-vocal behaviors
-use of smell
-use of space
-physical appearance
-use of time (chronemics)
-use of artifacts

study of touch


study of movement


eye behaviors


the study of smell


says we attribute positive qualities to attractive people

Halo Effect

Culture influences nonverbal behavior by:

greeting behavior, time orientations, touch, vocalics

Sex influences nonverbal behavior by:

Emotional expressiveness
Eye contact
Personal space

Interpreting nonverbal behavior:

-Be sensitive to nonverbal messages
-Decipher the meaning of nonverbal messages

Expressing nonverbal messages:

-Spend time with highly expressive people
-Participate in games that exercise your nonverbal expression skills

Your own understanding of who you are as a person comprises you:


The way you tend to think and act in most situations defines your:


Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to appear unsophisticated or socially awkward. True/False


Scientific studies have confirmed that girls have lower self-esteem than boys. True/False


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