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Terms in this set (24)
brief episode of abnormal electrical activity in nerve cells of the brain
involuntary spasmodic contractions of any or all voluntary muscles throughout the body, including skeletal, facial, and ocular muscles
chronic recurrent pattern of seizures (primary (idiopathic) or secondary (symptomatic)
generalized onset seizures
seizures originating simultaneously in both cerebral hemispheres
partial onset seizures
seizures originating in a more localized region of the brain (aka focal seizures)
simple partial onset seizures
brief loss of awareness but without loss of consciousness or spasmodic eye blinking as in absence seizures
complex partial onset seizures
LOC is reduced but not completely lost
- can progress to generalized tonic clonic seizures in up to 40% of pts
secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure -> partial onset seizures
seizures that are not officially classified due to inadequate data, as well as seizures that do not fit into categories.
- neonatal seizures such as those manifested by rhythmic eye movements, chewing, & swimming movements
What are anti epileptic drugs (AEDs) also known as?
goals of epileptic therapy (AEDs)
- CONTROL OR PREVENT seizures while maintaining a reasonable quality of life
- minimize adverse effects & drug induced toxicity
What is suggested to start off with: single or multi-drug therapy?
single drug therapy
Do serum drug concentrations need to be measured for therapeutic levels?
When may some patients be able to discontinue anti epileptic therapy?
if seizure free for 1-2 years
pharmacologic effects of AED's
- reduce nerves ability to be stimulated
- suppress transmission of impulses from one nerve to the next
- decrease speed of nerve impulse conduction within a neuron
indications for AEDs
- prevention or control of seizure activity
- long term maintenance therapy for chronic, recurring seizures
- acute treatment of convulsions & status epilepticus
seizure disorder characterized by generalized tonic- clonic convulsions that occur repeatedly; considered a medical emergency
can not control; will cause neurological deficit (not getting enough oxygen to brain)
black box warning for AEDs (as of 2008
suicidal thoughts & behavior
adverse effects of long term therapy with phenytoin (Dilantin)
- gingival hyperplasia
- dilantin facies
What fluids can IV phenytoin (dilantin) be used with?
NORMAL SALINE (ONLY)
is anti epileptic drugs a cure?
therapeutic effects of anti epileptic drugs?
decreased or absent seizure activity
adverse effects of AED
mental status changes, mood changes, changes in LOC, eye problems, visual disorders
sore throat, fever (blood dycrasias may occur with the hydantoins)
How are AED's given via IV?
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