Chapter 10 Sociology
Race and Ethnicity
Terms in this set (48)
Social category of people who share a common culture, for example, a common language or dialect, a common nationality, a common religion; and common norms, practices and customs, and history.
The definition a group has of its self as sharing a common cultural bond.
A group treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics, some of which are biological, and have been assigned or attributed social importance.
One drop rule
If you have even a single drop of blood in your ancestry, "black blood" for example, you are considered that nationality.
process whereby some social category, such as a social class or nationality, takes on what society perceives to be racial characteristics.
process by which a group comes to be defined as a race
out-group homogeneity effect
where all members of any out-group are perceived to be similar or even identical to each other and differences among them are perceived to be minor or nonexistent.
any distinct group in society that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination.
group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society
an oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum
an oversimplified set of beliefs about someone based on race or ethnicity
states that we categorize people on the basis of what appears initially prominent and obvious about them.
Social class status
an oversimplified set of beliefs based on someones social class.
stereotypes, especially negative ones, are often interchangeable from one social class to another, from one racial or ethnic group to another, from a racial or ethnic group to a social class, or from social class to gender.
the evaluation of a social group and the individuals within it based on conceptions about the social group held despite facts that disprove them.
overt and unequal treatment of members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in that group or stratum.
an illegal practice in which an entire minority neighborhood is designated as "no loan"
the spatial segregation of racial and ethnic groups into different residential areas, referred to as "American Apartheid".
digital racial divide
the percentage of black households in the U.S with internet access is only 54%, whereas the percentage of white households with internet access is 73%.
the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or a member of that group, as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to ones own group.
overt forms of physical assaults, from beatings to lynchings on someone for their race.
subtle, covert, and non obvious avoidance of a race.
Began after the Second World War and during the 1950s. Involves: persistent negative stereotyping, a tendency to blame blacks, and a clear resistance to any policy that will alleviate racial inequality all together.
individual affected by this type of racism prefers to ignore legitimate racial, ethnic, cultural, and other differences and insists that the race problems will go away in America if only one race is ignored.
Allows whites to define themselves as politically and racially tolerant as they proclaim adherence to a belief system that does not see or judge individuals by the "color of their skin".
for of racism in which the negative treatment and oppression of one racial or ethnic group based on the presumed inferiority of the oppressed group.
institutional racism within the criminal justice system.
argues that, historically, members of the dominant group in the U.S. have harbored various frustrations in their desire to achieve social and economic success. Anger from this becomes directed towards a substitute, which is the scapegoat.
characterized by a tendency to rigidly categorize other people, as well as inclinations to submit to authority, strictly conform, be very intolerant of ambiguity, and be inclined toward superstition.
process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant society.
maintenance and persistence of ones culture, language, mannerisms, practices, art, and so on.
originated by Gordon Allport, it argues that interaction between whites and minorities will reduce prejudice within both groups.
The class versus race controversy
States that race is a large deciding sociological factor than class is.
Refers to the interactive or combined effects of racism, classism, and gender in the oppression of people.
unemployment rate for Native American males
one cast profits from the labor of another caste. (slavery)
small farmers and ranchers, as the middle class, a third class of skilled workers; and a bottom class of manual laborers, who were mostly Indians.
The jones act
extended citizenship to Puerto Ricans
professional and high status refugees from other countries who came to the U.S.
Chinese Exclusion Act
enacted in 1882, this banned further immigration of unskilled Chinese laborers.
first generation Japanese immigrants employed in agricultural jobs.
second generation Japanese immigrants
the third generation of Japanese immigrants
hatred against the Jewish population
spatial and social separation of ethnic groups
grouping of people, largely minorities and the poor, who live at the absolute bottom of the socioeconomic ladder in urban areas.
referring to an extreme pattern of segregation.
heavily contested program for change, is a race-specific policy for reducing job and educational inequality that has had some limited success.