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DipTESOL grammar terms
Definition of grammatical terms used in DipTESOL grammar exam.
Terms in this set (38)
Any connected piece of speaking or writing (Thornbury)
Study of how DISCOURSE can achieve COHESION and COHERENCE. Seeks to identify patterns of language 'beyond the sentence'
How language is interpreted by its users, succesful comprehension based on context.
Process of working out rules based on examples. Also called discovery learning. Core principal of direct method and audiolingualism. One method of consciousness raising
When a rule is presented to a learner, which they then go on to put into practice. Base of grammar translation method. Advantages - clear.
The way in which learners become aware or are made aware of language features. Examples; tuning input, inductive learning, 'noticing the gap', pushing output and problematizing input eg why much/many?
Morpheme which cannot be used alone, must be combined with a FREE MORPHEME. For example, -ful in useful. Very often an affix.
Morpheme which can stand alone
Smallest meaningful unit in a language. For example, meaningful = 3 morphemes (mean + -ing + -ful)
Pocess of creating a new word out of an existing word by adding an affix or compounding. For example, outpatient, duckfeathers.
Often adding a prefix changes the meaning but NOT the word class.
Adding a suffix generally can chage meaning AND word class eg dark (adj) - darkness (n).
Modification of a word to show mood, tense, number etc. Inflections all belong to the same word class eg cares, caring, cared
Words with same sound but differebt written forms and different meanings eg to, two, too
Words that are written and pronounced in the same way but have different meanings eg trunks
Words that frequently occur together. The relation can be grammatical - eg depend on, talk about - or lexical - eg. a broad hint, a narrow escape. Strength of collocation can vary.
Words with same written form but different meanings. However, meanings are related/shared.
Also known as ordinates. Sub category of lexical group. For example, mango, banana and pineapple are all hyponyms of fruit (superordinate term).
The good/bad/humorous associations of a word. Culturally determined
multi word verbs (MWV)
Consist of a verb an one or more particles (adverbs or prepositions in other contexts).
4 main types of MWV
1: Intransative - no direct object
eg The plane took off
2: Transative inseparable - direct object which cannot split MWV
eg She looks after children
3: Transative separable - direct object and can be split
eg Can you put my parents up?
Can you put up my parents?
EXCEPTION: With pronoun must place it between verb and particle eg Put them up
4: Transative with 2 particles
eg You should look up to teachers
Category of MWV. Particles classified as adverbs. (But not always) Can take no object or a direct object.
Type of phrasal verb. Always has an object
Process by which, through repeated encounters, a word gathers associations such as collocations or connotations. Michael Hoey elaborated this theory, which in turn supports theory of lexical approach.
Words or phrase used to:
- signpost (textual discourse markers)
- manage conversation, who speaks when, involvement (conversational management discourse markers)
- influence how listener/reader will react (preparatory discourse markers)
- express attitude to what we say and write (attitude markers)
For examples see Parrot, pg 303
Process of leaving out elements of a sentence because they are unnecessary or can be worked out from immediate context. Ellipsis of function words common feature of instructions.
The way language indicates spatial, temporal and personal features of the context. For example, I have been here for 3 weeks now (I, here, now deictic reference)
Replacing of NOUN PHRASE or CLAUSE by a single word. For example, 'I'm having a beer - do you want one?'.
Do/does, so and not can substitue for whole clauses. For example,
'do we have to go? - I'm afraid so'
'I don't think I'll pass my exams - I'll make sure you do'
Use of grammatical and lexical means to create a connected text. DOES NOT guarantee COHERENCE.
- repitition of words
- words from same thematic field
- reference devices
When a text makes sense. Coherence is achieved when text respects certain textual conventions, it's relevant to context and other texts, it has logical relationships between sentences and has a consistent topic. Context clues and familiarity with topic are important.
- time: ie tomorrow
- manner: carefully
- place: ie outside
- degree: ie absolutely
- frequency: ie often
- linking: ie eventually
- emphasis: ie only
- attitude: ie frankly
- quantity: ie a little
3 positions in sentences; initial,mid and end
Functions like an adverb ie i) contributes circumstanial information or ii) serves to comment on what's being expressed or iii) links to other part of the text
In winter (i), generally speaking (ii), it freezes. As a result (iii), pipes burst
One of 5 elements which make up a clause or sentence
Common ways of forming adverbials:
1 - adverbs and adverb phrases (She ran fast, faster than the others)
2 - prepositional phrases (She ran up the stairs)
3 - some noun phrases (She ran this morning)
4 - clauses (She ran when she heard the explosion)
Often are part of formulaic language so difficult for learners
Unit of one or more words that form a single element of a clause or sentence
Quite often my older brother would get totally lost in the woods
non modal auxilliaries/primary auxilliaries
Be, do and have
- negation: My bike wasn't stolen
- inversion: Has someone stolen my bike?
- emphasis: My bike WAS stolen
- ellipsis: My bike wasn't stolen but my helemet was
- question tags: My bike was stolen, wasn't it?
These auxilliaries change form according to tense, number and person
do/did = dummy operator
Problems for learners: rules/usage obscure, especially dummy operator. Often unstressed or contracted so difficult to spot.
'view' of an event - if the speaker sees the event has finished or not, repetitive or not, connected to the time of speaking
2 aspects: progressive and perfect
Total Physical Response
- Founded by James Asher in the 70's
- Related to "Trace Theory" (Katona,1940): the stronger the memory association, the easier it is to recall
- General objectives to teach oral profeciency at beginner level
- Focus on meaning over form
- Learners encouraged to speak when they're ready
- "The teacher's role is not to teach but provide oppurtunities for learning" (Richards and Rogers)
- Sympathetic to Krashen principles: i) comprhensible input
ii) reduction of stress
- Founded by Caleb Gattengo
- Learner focused, students must discover language
- "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn" (Benjamin Franklin)
- Structural approach and inductive
- Teacher directed
- Facilitates learning to learn and heightens self awareness
- Role of teacher is " a) to teach, b) to test and c) to get out of the way" (Stevick)
- Founded by Lozanov
- Learners have to be in a highly suggestible state to learn
- Involves learning thousands of lexical items
- Requires an authoritarian teacher
- Makes use of music and other 'theraputic' techniques
- Main proponents are Willis and Lewis
- Holds that learning lexis should be made central to the language teaching process and that lexical items should be learnt as they occur in everyday usage
- Corpus extremely important
- Linked to idea of 'lexical priming' (Hoey)
- Lewis acknowledges the lack of theory behind the approach
- Limitations: requires huge amount of language input and noticing does not always lead to language intake
Krashen's 5 hypotheses
1) Comprhensible input; I + 1
2 + 3) Acquisition learning and monitor hypothesis: language acquired, not learnt. Learning can never produce spontaneous speech - that only occurs from noticing speech patterns. Cook raises counterpoint concerning lectures (by nature lectures areno spotaneousand even native speakers must make decisions about the language used) .
4) Natural order;language acquired in a certain order (linked to Chomsky's Universal Grammar theory)
5) Affective filter; if learners affective filter is up, SLA limited. 'High' affective filter caused by correcting too soon and not leaving enough silence
Phrase used to express quantity. 3 types:
1) measure; ie an acre, a pint, a metre
2) typical (collocates with a noun); ie slice of cake, lump of coal
3) general; a bit, a piece
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