logical fallacies by definition


Terms in this set (...)

Begging the Question
a logical fallacy that assumes in the premise what the arguer should be trying to prove in the conclusion
Argument from Analogy
the argument that ignores important dissimilarities between two things being compared
Personal attack
fallacy tries to divert attention from the facts of an argument by attacking the motives or character of the person making the argument
Hasty or Sweeping Generalization
sometimes called "jumping to a conclusion", the fallacy occurs when a conclusion is reached on the basis of too little evidence
False Dilemma
fallacy occurs when a writer suggests that only two alternatives exist even though there may be others
fallacy occurs when the meaning of a key term changes at some point in an argument
Red Herring
fallacy occurs when the focus of an argument is shifted to divert the audience from the actual issue
You Also
fallacy asserts that an opponent's argument has no value because the opponent does not follow his or her own advice
Appeal to Doubtful Authority
When people try to strengthen an argument by citing a famous person or expert but the person cited has no credibility in the domain of that argument
Misleading Statistics
fallacy happens when factual evidence is misrepresented or distorted in an attempt to influence an audience
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Fallacy exists because it assumes that because two events occur close together in time, the first must be the cause of the second
Non Sequitur
fallacy occurs when a statement does not logically follow from a previous statement
fallacy based on the notion that everyone is doing it so this is what should be done
Appeal to Ignorance
fallacy based on the assumption that whatever has not been proven false must be true (or, similarly, whatever is has not been proven true must be false)
Slippery Slope
Argument suggests dire consequences from relatively minor causes
Straw Man Argument
Argument consists of an oversimplification of an opponent's argument to make it easier to attack
Illogical statements that may sound reasonable or true but are actually deceptive and dishonest
Sentimental Appeals
Tactical attempts to appeal to the hearts of the readers or listeners so they forget to use their minds
Basic form of deductive argument which consists of a major premise, which is a general statement; a minor premise, which is a related but more specific statement; and a conclusion, which is drawn from those premises.
Rogerian Argument
With this approach parties enter into a cooperative relationship with opponents emphasizing points of agreement to find common ground rather than refuting opposing arguments