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135 terms

Psychology chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when _____________.
older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ______.
primacy effect
When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called ________________.
encoding
Which of the following statements is true of retrieval cues?
They are important in helping us remember items stored in long-term memory.
When Tiger Woods has a certain "feel" for how hard to putt the ball (touch memory) depending on the slope and distance to the hole, he is utilizing his ________ memory
modality-specific
If you have used a variety of operations when processing information, you have utilized ________.
depth of processing
Malcolm, aged 35, is severely depressed. Because of this he is given electroconvulsive shock therapy. After treatment, he is sent home and does much better. However, his TV-watching behavior is strange. Malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite series are new. Malcolm is showing signs of ______________.
retrograde amnesia
The best analogy for the way long-term memory is conceptualized would be _________.
a filing cabinet
Studying for extended periods of time is the best way to learn something.
False
A skill is like a habit, except that __________________.
skills are more flexible
Jamal is trying to buy something over the phone. He asks his partner to read him his credit card number. However, when he tries to repeat it to the sales clerk on the other end of the line, he can't remember all the numbers. Jamal is coming up against ______.
George Miller's magic number 7, plus or minus 2
Which memory system is the one that has a working, active system that processes the information within it?
short-term memory
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
depth-of-processing model
Adrianna is trying to memorize the names of the bones in the hand. She had gone through a list of them when her phone rang. After she gets off the phone, she is MOST likely to remember the first few bone names because of the ________.
primacy effect
Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ______.
Chunking
A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess?
sensory memory
In the research on false memories, why was it easier to implant some memories and not others?
The emotion evoked by the potentially implanted memory played a role.
Production of noradrenaline in the brain is associated with ________.
experiencing some emotional event
Your text authors make the computer analogy that short-term memory is similar to ________ and long-term memory is similar to information ________.
the computer's RAM (random access memory); stored on the hard drive
Short-term memory tends to hold information for several hours
False
Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when _____________.
older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ______.
primacy effect
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ____________.
echoic sensory memory
Chunking is a means of ______.
combining information into meaningful units
How do cues help you to remember?
They direct you to relevant information stored in long-term memory
Advertising might not directly influence you to buy a product, but it can cause you to notice the presence of that product. This is likely due to __________________.
priming of memory
In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer ______.
form new memories
Which memory system is the one that has a working, active system that processes the information within it?
short-term memory
The auditory form of sensory memory is called ________ memory
echoic
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. His memory of things at the end of the list demonstrates the __________________.
recency effect
Consistent with reality monitoring, if Wanda is paying particular attention to the perceptual detail of her surroundings, then she will find it is easier to distinguish actual memories from false ones.
True
Personal facts and memories of one's personal history are parts of ___________.
episodic memory
If you have used a variety of operations when processing information, you have utilized ________.
depth of processing
If Shannon learned French before she learned Latin, retroactive interference would predict that Latin would interfere with her French.
True
As you sit in class, the words to your favorite song keep running through your head. You are using what part of working memory?
the articulatory loop
Talia, a psychology major, just conducted a survey for class where she asked students about their opinions regarding evolution. When Talia thinks back on this experience, which of the following statements is accurate?
Talia's ability to recall the factual details about the survey illustrates semantic memory, while her recollections of talking with the students illustrates episodic memory.
________ is the process of repeating information over and over in order to retain it in short-term memory.
Rehearsal
The key to mnemonics is that they ________.
link something new to something you already know
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is _________.
semantic
Retrieval is the process of __________________.
accessing information already stored in memory
When someone looks at an image, the retina turns the light rays from it into neural messages that go up to the optic nerve so the brain can interpret them. This process is called __________________.
Encoding
Suppose you're pitching in a baseball game facing a good hitter. You remember that you struck him out with a fastball the last time he was up. You also remember that your coach told you always to try to be unpredictable, so you decide to throw a curve ball this time. In making this decision, you are primarily using your ________.
central executive
If one wants to increase the capacity of short-term memory, more items can be held through the process of __________.
Chunking
Participants in the "sweet" experiment in your text falsely recalled the word "sweet" when asked to memorize a word list. Why did they make this mistake?
The words on the list were associated with the concept of sweet and it became activated.
All of the following are characteristics of amnesia except ________.
it is akin to normal forgetting
You can combine numbers and images to remember lists of words. For example, you can generate an image of the word and associate it with a numbered item on a list you already know. This is an example of ________.
the pegword system
Distributed practice in studying means to ________.
study in short sessions spread out over time
How do cues help you to remember?
They direct you to relevant information stored in long-term memory.
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
depth-of-processing model
In humans, the effects of stress on the hippocampus ________.
Can be reversed
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?
fill-in-the-blank
When newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information, this is called ______________.
retroactive interference
The crucial difference between having a "good" memory and having a "bad" memory among most people is ________.
the strategies used when storing and retrieving information
Your memory for the moment you heard about the planes crashing into New York's Twin Towers would be most appropriately termed a(n) ________ memory.
flashbulb
Declarative memories are to ________ memories as nondeclarative memories are to __________ memories.
explicit; implicit
In the partial report method of Sperling's study of sensory memory, the participants were to report ______________.
one of three lines of letters as indicated by the sound of a tone immediately presented after the letters had disappeared
Alfred Binet designed the first ______ test.
intelligence
Solving a problem critically depends on ________.
how you represent it
A key aspect of intelligence is the ability to adapt to the environment.
True
Brain shape has no relation to intelligence.
False
An advantage of using a heuristic over an algorithm is ________.
the heuristic can be quicker
The two most common forms of mental retardation are ________.
genetically related
A criticism of Sternberg's theory is that ________.
even his own data provide only weak support for his theory
What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
confirmation bias
The term ________ refers to the most intermediate level of specificity that is likely to be applied to an object.
basic level
John B. Carroll argued that ________.
the relations among test scores are neatly structured into a three-tiered hierarchy
Einstein's out-of-the-box thinking is characterized by ________.
his intellectual flexibility
In problem solving, the term rule of thumb refers to ______________.
heuristics
An algorithm, if correctly executed, insures a correct answer.
True
The problem with inductive reasoning is ________.
it may lead to false conclusions
________ is credited with developing the idea of an intelligence quotient.
William Stern
If you took the WAIS-III, you would be taking two major parts. These subtests measure what abilities?
verbal and performance
The sounds t, th, and sh are ______.
phonemes
________ is genetic and inherited and is much more likely to occur in males than females.
Fragile X syndrome
A person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. The person is engaging in ______.
divergent thinking
Researchers typically stress that a key aspect of intelligence is ________.
the ability to adapt to the environment
Lewis Terman and his colleagues revised the Binet-Simon test. The new test was called the ________.
Stanford-Binet
According to Robert Sternberg, ____________ is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems (divergent thinking, in other words).
creative intelligence
Which of these is one of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences?
naturalistic
When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although _______ sets limits on a child's potential, it is the _______ that permits that potential to be actualized.
heredity; environment
If you speak two languages, when you name a picture in one language, you'll initially also activate its name in the other.
True
The most common cause of mental retardation is ________.
Down syndrome
The most widely used IQ tests in the United States were developed by ________.
David Wechsler
When people are asked to say how many windows they have in their dwelling, the amount of time people take to come up with the answer ______________.
depends on the number of windows
Individuals who have no language cannot think.
False
________ proposed the theory of multiple intelligences.
Gardner
What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?
the linguistic relativity hypothesis
The correlation of IQs for adult identical twins raised apart is ________.
higher than for fraternal twins raised together
The phrase "I tried" has ________.
Three morphemes
Research on the genetic effects on intelligence has found that ________.
multiple genes contribute to intelligence
Which of the following correlations of intelligence level would provide evidence for an environmental influence on intelligence?
adopted children and their adoptive parents who have high intelligence
The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ______.
one's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world
What is the relationship between brain shape and IQ?
They are positively correlated
The concept of the confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe________.
information that agrees with our thinking
Spearman developed a new statistical tool to analyze scores on intelligence tests. This method is called ________.
factor analysis
Is IQ associated with achievement in the real world?
Yes, but the relationship is small.
________ is the ability to produce something original of high quality or to devise effective new ways of solving a problem.
Creativity
If your mental age is 20 and you are 20 years old, then your IQ would be 120.
False
________ refers to a set of rules that determines which conclusions follow from particular assumptions.
Logic
The ability to carefully observe aspects of the natural environment is consistent with ________ intelligence.
Naturalist
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into ______ independent abilities.
eight
The semantics of the sentence "He ran" refer to its ________.
meaning
Talia is looking for her cat by methodically searching each room and then closing the door. She is using what type of problem solving strategy?
an algorithm
According to Robert Sternberg, ____________ is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems (divergent thinking, in other words).
creative intelligence
The fact that when poor black children moved from the rural South to Philadelphia in the 1940s their IQs increased illustrates that ________.
the environment affects intelligence
Which is the most likely prototype for the concept "vehicle"?
car
A morpheme has only one phoneme.
False
Inductive reasoning always converges on the correct answer.
false
Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. The idea of such testing came from _____________.
France
According to your textbook, intelligence is ________.
a concept
What is Phonology?
A structure of the sound of the words in a laungage
The sentence, "Colorless ideas sleep furiously" has ________.
proper syntax but poor semantics
Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ______.
the theory of multiple intelligences
One advantage of learning the grammar of a foreign language early in life is that it becomes ________.
automatic
Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating ____________.
confirmation bias
Deductive reasoning appears to rely on ________.
the form that is implied in the question
Some researchers have operationalized and measured "hunches" by using ________.
skin-conductance response
Difficulty in the "hiking monk problem" is usually a result of how you set the problem up. This is called ________.
the representation problem
The sentences "The dog bit the boy" and "The boy was bit by the dog" have the same meaning, but differ in ________.
Syntax
Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
significant limitations in two or more "everyday" abilities
People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly__________ years ago.
100
In language, syntax refers to ________.
the acceptable internal structure or arrangement of words in a given sentence for a language
Assuming that a series of coin tosses is random because the ratio of heads and tails look randomly distributed is an example of ________.
representativeness heuristic
At the level of the brain, what effect does the stress hormone cortisol have on memory?
It can kill neurons in the hippocampus
Modality-specific memory stores retain input from only one sense.
True
Which of the following distinguishes sensory memory (SM) from short-term memory (STM)?
SM holds a large amount of separate pieces of information.
Automatic processing, compared to controlled processing, involves less ________.
Attention
A psychologist asks people to recall the name of their kindergarten teacher. Surprisingly, the majority of people correctly do this and comment, "Gee whiz, I haven't thought about that old bat [or old coot] in years!" Their ability to do so is a severe problem for which theory of forgetting?
decay or disuse
The depth of processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog?
"Would it be found in a pond?"
A well-learned response that is carried out automatically when the appropriate stimulus is present is called (a) ________.
Habit
When does consolidation occur?
after a couple of years, but it may continue for much longer
Portions of the frontal lobes are activated when people encode new information.
True
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________.
visual is to auditory
Jerome is preparing for his philosophy essay exam and has decided to just employ basic memorization skills. What does transfer appropriate processing predict in this case?
He will probably do more poorly on the test than if he used another strategy.
Traditionally, what are repressed memories?
real memories pushed out of consciousness because they are emotionally threatening