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Terms in this set (81)
What are some of the advantages that bilaterally symmetrical animals have over radially symmetrical ones?
they allow for cephalization which increases movement and sensory and forward movement
What are the functions of the parapodia seen in the clamworm and other polychaetes?
aid in locomotion and in burrowing and in respiration
One type of polychaete worm commonly found in marine habitats is a tube worm. We observed a live one in lab. Do a quick web search to find out more information about this organism. Describe the structure of a typical tubeworm. Describe how a tubeworm feeds.
have a plume, vestimentum, trophosome, trunk, tube, opisthosome; soft body inside hard tube made of chitin; do not have eyes, mouth, stomach, or legs; depend on bacteria living inside of them for food; produce food by chemosynthesis
Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, are gastropods that lack a shell. How are the advantages of having a shell compensated in nudibranchs?
swim away quickly, produce clouds of thick ink to confuse predators, noxious chemical deterrent system, use of stinging cells acquired from the slugs own prey, can camouflage, can mimic, secrete toxins, nocturnal and hide in crevices, secondary gills have evaded
Compare the type of circulatory systems in segmented worms and molluscs.
segmented worms have closed circulatory systems, one where blood is enclosed in blood vessels, presence of gills aids in oxygenation; mollusks have an open circulatory system where blood flows out of vessels into specialized spaces in the body
What kind of modifications to the typical molluscan plan (typified by gastropods) do we find in the bivalves?
bivalves have two shells to protect their laterally compressed body and expanded gills used to obtain oxygen and filter or sort food as well, head is reduced and radula is absent
One structure commonly found in mollusks is a radula. Describe the structure of a radula and its function based on your observations of a live marine snail feeding with its radula.
the radula is a ribbon of tiny teeth found in the mouth cavity; its function is to cut/rasp food and other particles into the body
Describe the flow of water through a bivalve.
water enters mantle cavity posteriorly into the incurrent siphon, passes over the gills with use of cilia, then passes out through the external siphon (posteriorly dorsally)
What are chromatophores and what is their function?
they are cells or plastids that contain pigment; their function is to determine color patterns of an organism; changing color through these pigments are good for camouflage, signaling, temperature regulation, and protection from radiation
muscle layer encloses internal organs
respiration, discharge of wastes, move in water
oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
stun and ensnare prey
Ink sac (squid)
protection and decoy, confuse predators
Nidamental gland (squid)
female reproductive organ; protective coating on egg
locomotion and feeding
Pen or Shell (squid)
supports squid body
Systematic heart (squid)
pumps oxygenated blood to body
Branchial gill hearts (squid)
pumps blood to gills to oxygenate the blood
store/digest food, absorb nutrients
Externally, how can your differentiate between male and female squid?
males have hectocotylus and females do not; this specialized reproductive organ is located on the arm of a male
What are some unique characteristics possessed by cephalopods but lacking in other mollusks?
nervous system is highly developed, do not have an external shell, have arms/tentacles, are predators, can see very well, highly developed behavioral patterns, have a beak, reproduce differently by spermatophores
Describe squid locomotion.
fill mantle cavity with water and then quickly expel the water out of the siphon
What anatomical features show that a squid is well-adapted to a predatory existence?
have beaks to tear flesh or crush shells; have tentacles/arms with suckers to stun and grasp prey; are streamlined for great motility
How are cephalopod eyes similar to vertebrate eyes?
Both have single lens eyes, very complex image-forming eyes within lenses, they work by allowing light to enter through the pupil and be focused by the lens onto the photoreceptor cells of the retina
Describe the structures and function of a water vascular system, including ring canal, radial canal, tube feet, and ampulla.
water vascular system is a network of water-filled canals used on locomotion and feeding; the ring canal serves as a water pump that distributes water to the five radial canals that go into each tube foot; radial canals are located in each arm and aid in delivering water to the arms; tube feet are located in arms and aid in locomotion, feeding, and respiration; ampullae in tube feet sotre water and aid in locomotion
How do the major classes of echinoderms differ from each other?
-have 5 arms, sometimes more
-have a central disk
-very well-defined central disk
-more arms for locomotion
-use tube feet to feed
-endoskeleton round in sea urchins, flattened in sand dollars
-Aristotle's lantern for feeding
-more "water like"
-use feathery arms and tube feet to obtain food
-many are nocturnal
How do starfish exchange gases (breathe)?
respiration or gas exchange occurs first through the thin skin on the ends of the tube feet and also in the dermal gills or papulae which are lined with cilia that move to produce a current
Describe and compare feeding structures and mechanisms in sea urchins, sea stars, and sea cucumbers.
-have an Aristotle's lantern, which is a set of jaws and muscles to feed
-have an oral mouth that devours prey into the stomach and then into digestive glands which contain digestive enzymes in tube feet and then moves to anus by a short intestine
-deposit feeders using their tentacles
Describe the structure and functioning of pedicellariae in the echinoderms that have them. Which echinoderm classes have pedicellariae?
-pincer-like organs used in defense and in the removal of unwanted particles from the body
What is the function of the madreporite?
serves as entry point of water that circulates through the water vascular system
How does the symmetry of a larval starfish differ from the symmetry of an adult starfish?
larval starfish are bilateral symmetrical while adult starfish metamorphosis into radial symmetry
What is the function of Aristotle's lantern seen in sea urchins?
is used in feeding
What is the function of the polian vesicles seen in sea cucumbers?
maintain pressure in water vascular system and hold reserve supplies of fluid
Why are echinoderms thought to be more closely related evolutionary to chordates than any other phyla we have looked at so far?
because they exhibit somewhat similar patterns of early development during the embryonic stage
What are some advantages and disadvantages of the chitinous exoskeleton found in arthropods?
-useful in defense
-site of attachment for muscles
-movement of the body is limited
-appendages is limited by thin, flexible joints
-it has to shed
How do the simple and compound eyes of the horseshoe crab differ in structure and function?
simple eyes are medial and help with the finding of food; compound eyes are the widely spaced pair of eyes that are made up of the thousand of light sensors that see shades of gray and used for finding mates
Describe the structure and functioning of the book gills of the horseshoe crab.
flattened, plate-like appendages located posterior to five pairs that are used to circulate water over the gills and to force blood into and out of the "pages" of them, also helps with swimming
How do the subphyla Chelicerata and Crustacea differ from one another?
-do not have antennae
-have few mouth parts
-head is not separated from the thorax
-first appendages bear pincer-like chelicerae
-have 2 pairs of segmented antennae and segmented bodies
-several feeding appendages near the mouth
-most have a carapace covering head and thorax
Chelipeds (blue crab)
defense; obtaining food
Mandibles (blue crab)
teeth; help move stomach
Maxillae (blue crab)
taste food; manipulate food toward mouth
Maxillipeds (blue crab)
manipulate food toward mouth
Gastric Mill (blue crab)
grinds food with teeth in digestive tract
Of the four basic chordate characteristics, which do you think has been the most influential in the evolution of chordates in general? Why?
the notochord because it has allowed for cephalization; mainly important for muscle attachment for efficient movement
Some chordates have all four chordate characteristics only in the larval stage. What happens to these structures during development into adults?
These structure either disappear or form out or some stay with the adult as it forms.
Compare and contrast the three chordate subphyla: Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Vertebrata (Agnatha) in terms of the 4 chordate characteristics in larvae and adults.
Urochordata: All 4 found only in larval form, tunicates/seasquirts lack nerve cord, notochord, and post-anal tail
Cephalochordata: All 4 found in adult, backbone absent.
Vertebrata: Only dorsal hollow nerve cord remains in adult stage. Agnatha have all 4
Trace the flow of water through an adult tunicate. What is the importance of this water flow for this organism?
The importance of this water flow lies in the organism's ability to gain nutrients.
What are the most defining characteristics of the agnathans compared to all other vertebrates?
the notochord, cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, cranium, visceral arches, spinal column of segments vertebrates, an enlarged brain which primitively have three divisions, a head region with specialized sense organs
Distinguish between the two living agnathans, the lampreys and hagfishes.
Lamprey: occur in mostly freshwater and some marine, act as parasites and non-parasites, have stout body and less slimy skin and ventral mouth and a functional pair of eyes, tongue is not well-developed and has large teeth, brain is well-developed and has separate sexes
Hagfish: act as mainly marine, act as scavengers, feeble body and more slimy skin and a terminal mouth and a degenerative pair of eyes, tongue is well-developed and has similar teeth, brain is not well-developed and is hermaphrodite
Function of a fish's operculum and swim bladder?
Operculum: Protection of gills, can increase the volume of mouth when flared for feeding, scare off predators when flared, force water over gills when not swimming.
Swim bladder: Used for buoyancy and balance, increase and decrease air ot move in water column.
Describe any three fish that have special body characteristics and explain how each characteristic is adapted to a particular function.
salmon have adipose fins which helps stabilize the fish while swimming. placoid scales on sharks and rays help provide protection from the environment and predators. plicate mouth in white suckers helps improve facial symmetry and specialized eating.
What is the function of the lateral line system?
Used for sensing water currents, prey, and predators, senses changes in water; water goes into bits of lateral line, triggers/flows through hairs in it to sense pressure changes.
Discuss the function and differences between countershading, disruptive coloration, and cryptic coloration with regards to coral reef fish. Give examples of each.
countershading is protective coloration of some animals in which parts normally in shadow are light and those exposed to the sky are dark i.e. turtles; forms of camouflage that works by breaking up the outlines of an animal i.e. butterfly fish; coloring or marking of an animal that helps to camouflage it in its natural environment i.e. hagfish
What are two funcitons of the rigid spines often seen in the fins of bony fishes?
Protection, expand into hard-to-eat shapes and stability.
Differentiate between osmoregulation in cartilaginous fishes versus bony fishes.
Cartilaginous fish reabsorb their urea into their tissues to level out the concentration difference in the water versus bony fish who drink or swallow a lot of seawater to stay hydrated and excrete salt through gills and gut.
Identify at least four main characteristics possessed by mammals that differentiate them from other classes of vertebrates.
Young nourished with milk from mammary glands
Lower jaw hinged directly to the skull
Chain of three tiny bones transmits sound waves across middle ear.
Describe filter-feeding in baleen whales.
Strain large volumes of ocean water through their baleen plates, trap food on baleen, their tongue licks off whatever is gathered and is then swallowed.
Look at the pictures of the skeletongs of the 4 marine mammals. Identify at least three differences seen amongst the various skeletons and note the functional advantage of each of those difference.
Humpback has longer beak to capture better food, better adaptive for feeding.
Seals have bones in back flippers to help them move better on land.
Manatees have bigger rib cage to breath and protect their organs.
How do marine mammals physiologically prevent "the bends" when diving deep?
Their lung structure can collapse.
How do rays and skates differ? How are they similar? Note both external and internal features.
rays are live bearing reproductive, skates lay eggs, skates have a prominent dorsal fin, rays dorsal fin is absent or greatly reduced, rays kite-shaped with whip-like tails and stinging spines, skates fleshy tails lack spines, rays larger than skates, both are flat and bottom-dwelling, both are similarly shaped with similar organs
What do skates feed upon?
range from crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, lobster, amphipod, isopod, mysid) to polychaete worms, bivalve mollusks, small fishes, and occasionally cephalopods
What is the function or the spiracles seen on the skate?
first external gill opening, water gets pumped in and out here
External nares (dogfish shark)
channel smell reception and detect chemicals in water
Spiracles (dogfish shark)
how they breathe, water goes in and out here
Lateral line (dogfish shark)
senses changes in water movement and pressure, sense prey/predation
Claspers (dogfish shark)
in males for mating, aid in sperm transfer during mating
Spiral intestine (dogfish shark)
more surface area for secreting materials and digestive enzymes
What are the ampullae of Lorenzini and what function do they serve?
special sense organs, used for electro-reception, senses electrical fields, sensory vesicles that respond to changes in electrical fields
How does a shark maintain buoyancy?
large liver, liver filled with an oil that contains squalene, dynamic lift using pectoral fins and caudal fin to keep moving, cartilaginous structure is lighter preventing sinking and easy movement
Pectoral fins (dogfish shark)
provide lift to keep from sinking
Pelvic fins (dogfish shark)
act as stabilizers to prevent shark from rolling left or right
Caudal fins (dogfish shark)
propel shark forward
Dorsal fin (dogfish shark)
carry spines on each dorsal fin with poison for protection, also help keep up right preventing tipping or rolling over
How do sharks "breathe"?
keep mouth slightly gaping to allow water to flow through and enter gills
What type of scales are found on sharks? What are the main functions of these scales?
placoid scales; protection and reduce hydrodynamic drag in water
Describe at least 3 of the well-developed sensory systems of the shark.
External nares and olfactory sacs and olfactory bulbs to smell; Ampullae of Lorenzini for electrical fields or electro-reception; Later line with hairs to sense changes in water pressure
producing living young from eggs that hatch within the body
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