43 terms

AP Psychology Motivation&Emotion

Motivation and Emotion, Myers' AP Psychology Unit 8A&B. Plus some stress stuff.
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motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise.
binge-eating disorder
significant binge-eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
estrogens
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)
facial feedback
the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness
catharsis
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing"aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
relative deprivation
the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
behavioral medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and diesase
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
stress
the process by which we perceive and response to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
psychophysiological illness
literally "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
personal control
the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
internal locus of control
the perception that you control your own fate
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
self
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions