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31 terms

Music History

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Hildegard of Bingen
All the ends of the earth (Videruni omnes) Style: monophonic Gregorian chant.
Pope Gregory the great
Role in establishing chants and specific church days of the year.
Monophony
Music for one line
Gregorian chant
Style, use of latin text for the mass and the eight monastic hours of prayer, composed over the course of fifteen centuries, lack of a snese of meter or regular rhythm.
Melisematic singing
Many notes sung to just one syllable.
Syllabic Singing
Only one or two notes per syllable.
Music notation
Evolved at the year 1000, placement of note heads on lines and spaces
Organum
Early polyphony of the western church
Mass
The central and most important service of the Roman catholic Church.
Machaut
Composed first polyphonic setting of the mass ordinary, THe mass of our lady, best known work in the entire medieval repertoire: most important composer of the fourteenth century: comparison with Geoffrey Chaucer.
Arganum in Paris
Rhytmic Difficulty, use of trained singers
Secular musicians of the middle ages
Minnesinger, troubadour, trouvere, troubairitz
Dufay and burgundian court
This month of may - use as a dance piece.
Major medieval composers
Hildegard of Bingen, Leoninus, Machaut, Dufay
Medieval Music Style
Monophonic music sung in notes of equal value without clearly marked rhythms; mainly vocal music - few instrumental compositions survived; Melodies move by step within a narrow range and rarely use the chromatic tones.
Humanism
belief that people are something more than a mere conduit for gifts descending from heaven, that they have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful- indeed, the ability to shape their own world.
Imitation
A procedure whereby one or more voices in turn the notes of a melody.
Motet
A composition for choir setting a religious, devotional, or solemn text, often sung "a cappella"; Josquin's ave maria is an example of a renaissance motet.
Josquin Des Prez
born in northern Europe, spent most of his career in italy and excelled in writing motets. Temperament and ego, equal to Michelangelo, earned high twice as much money as his peers. Musical style was later copied by Bach and Mozart.
Counter-Reformation
The reform movement that promoted a more conservative, austere (strict) approach to art. The musician who embodied this was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
Council of Trent
a two decade long conference at which leading cardinals and bishops undertook a reform of the roman catholic church.
Falsetto
A method of voice to sing in a higher range.
Palestrina
Spent most of his creative life in rome serving the major churches. Influence on the Counter-reformation music style.
Point of imitation
Passage in a polyphonic work in which two or more parts enter in imitation.
Genres of composition in the renaissance
Mass/motet/instrumental dance/madrigal
Major composers of the renaissance
Josquin, Palestrina, Lasso, Weelkes.
Word painting
The depicting of text by means of a descriptive musical gesture, whether subtly or jokingly as a musical pun.
Madrigal/Renaissance Madrigal
A piece for several solo voices, usually 4 or 5, that sets a vernacular poem, most often about love, to music. Emerged in Italy @ 1350.
Leonin and Perotin
composers of maguns liber organi
Proper mass
Chants whose text changed to suit, or "be proper for", the feast day in question.
Ordinary mass
Chants with unvarying texts that were sung virtually every day.