Concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, persistence, quality, and direction of ongoing behavior.
Approach developed by B. F. Skinner that placed the emphasis for behavior and directed activity directly on the environment rather than on any internal needs or instincts.
Approach developed by Kurt Lewin, who proposed that various forces in the psychological environment interacted and combined to yield a final course of action.
Metaphor that suggests that people's behaviors/actions are reflexive and involuntary and are performed without conscious awareness.
Metaphor that suggests that people are perfectly rational and intentional rather than automatic or reflexive.
Metaphor that suggests that people are active information-gatherers and analysts who seek knowledge and understanding as a way of mastering their environment.
The inability of humans to reason and make decisions in perfectly rational ways.
Metaphor in which an individual seeks information about the extent to which the person and others are perceived as responsible for positive and negative events. The person looks for evidence of intention in the actions of others and considers those intentions in choosing a personal course of action.
Area of research that investigates whether the satisfaction that one experiences at work is in part affected by the satisfaction that one experiences in non-work and vice versa, particularly to the extent that one environment has demands that conflict with the other.
Relatively stable feelings or beliefs that are directed toward specific persons, groups, ideas, jobs, or other objects.
Maslow's Need theory
Theory that proposed that all humans have a basic set of needs and that these needs express themselves over the life span of the individual as internal "pushes" or drives. Identified five basic needs sets: physiological, security, love or social, esteem, and self- actualization.
Theory proposed by Herzberg that suggested that there were really two basic needs, not five as suggested by Maslow, and that they were not so much hierarchically arranged as independent of one another.
Lower-level needs described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Herzberg proposed that meeting these needs would eliminate dissatisfaction, but would not result in motivated behavior or a state of positive satisfaction.
Theory of human needs proposed by Alderfer who suggested that human needs are best thought of as arranged in three levels: "Existence," "Relatedness," and "Growth."
Higher-level needs described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Herzberg proposed that meeting such needs resulted in the expenditure of effort as well as satisfaction.
Theory that proposes that behavior depends on three simple elements: stimulus, response, and reward. Proposed that if a response in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded (i.e., reinforced), that response is likely to occur again in the presence of that stimulus.
path-goal theory of motivation
First formal work motivation theory to suggest that people weighed options before choosing among them was the Path-Goal theory of Georgopolus, Mahoney, and Jones (1957). Reasoned that if a worker saw high productivity as a path to the goal of desired rewards or personal goals (e.g., a pay increase or promotion, or increased power, prestige, or responsibility), that worker would likely be a high producer.
Motivation theory that assumed that individuals rationally estimate the relative attractiveness and unattractiveness of different rewards or outcomes (Valence), the probability that performance will lead to particular outcomes or rewards (Instrumentality), and the probability that effort will lead to performance (Expectancy).
An individual's belief that a particular behavior (e.g., effort, hard work) will lead to a particular outcome (e.g., a promotion).
Theory suggested by Festinger that observed that tension exists when individuals hold "dissonant cognitions" (incompatible thoughts). This approach assumes that individuals always seek some sense of "balance" (i.e., absence of tension) and that they will direct their behavior toward reducing the tension resulting from dissonant cognitions.
Motivational theory developed by Adams that suggested that individuals look at their world in terms of comparative inputs and outcomes. Individuals compare their inputs and outcomes with others (e.g., peers, co- workers) by developing an input/outcome ratio.
A co-worker or idealized other person to which the individual compares him or herself in determining perceived equity.
Ratio that results when employees compare their inputs and outcomes to those others (e.g., peers, co-workers) to determine if they are being treated equitably.
Motivational approach that assumes that individuals are intentional in their behavior.
the general concept of a goal is adapted to work motivation. In this approach, a goal is seen as a motivational force, and individuals who set specific, difficult goals perform better than individuals who simply adopt a "do your best" goal or no goal at all.
Connection between knowledge of results and the intermediate states that occur between goal commitment and performance.
based on the principle of a feedback loop that assumes that an individual compares a standard to actual outcome and adjusts behavior to bring the outcome into agreement with the standard.
Process by which individuals take in information about behavior, and make adjustments or changes based on that information. These changes, in turn, affect subsequent behavior (e.g., strategies, goal commitment).
includes broad consideration of the role of intention in motivated behavior as well as the connection between intention and action.
starts with a goal, proceeds to a consideration of events that may occur in the future, then to the development of several alternative plans, the selection of a plan, the execution and monitoring of the chosen plan, and the processing of information resulting from the execution of the plan. The last step, feedback, then influences goal development once again.
Structure that includes the notion that (1) observable action is the result of a number of prior events and plans, hierarchically arranged and (2) the feedback and resulting regulation of actions occur at different levels.
motivational trait questionnaire
A 48-item questionnaire that provides a standardized method of assessing six distinct aspects of general performance motivation.
motivational approach that involves increasing the responsibility and interest level of jobs in order to increase the motivation and job satisfaction of employees performing those jobs.
Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)
A motivational approach that utilizes goal setting, rewards, and feedback to increase motivation and performance.
Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience.
Job satisfaction theory proposed by Locke, in which the relative importance of a particular job aspect to a given worker influenced the range of that worker's responses to it.
Overall assessment of job satisfaction that results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction with specific important aspects of work or a single overall evaluative rating of the job.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
One of the most extensively researched and documented job satisfaction instruments; assesses satisfaction with five distinct areas: the work itself, supervision, people, pay, and promotion.
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
commonly used job satisfaction instrument that assesses particular aspects of work (e.g., achievement, ability utilization) as well as scores for extrinsic satisfaction and intrinsic satisfaction.
Concerns aspects central, or intrinsic, to the job itself, such as responsibility.