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Sustainable Infrastructure Exam 2
Terms in this set (242)
What are the 12 Principles of Green Engineering?
1) Use safe materials
2) Prevent instead of treat
3) Design for easy reuse and recycling
4) maximize efficiency
5) Design for the end opposed to momentary ease
6) Conserve complexity; simplicity when possible
7) durability rather than immortality
8) meet needs and minimize excess
9) minimalism in materials
10) integrate local materials
11) design for the afterlife
12) renewable materials
What is the spirit of the 12 principles of green engineering?
Think of the end result and the longer lasting effects of the product that you are creating. Try to lesson the affect of what you are creating.
What are Ecosystem Services?
The services that the ecosystem provides to us
How do we classify the value of the services that the Ecosystem provides to us?
We group then into the following groups:
What are examples of the provisional services offered by an ecosystem?
Food, Water, Timber, Pharmaceuticals
What are provisional services offered by ecosystems?
How many pharmaceuticals does the environment provide?
120 chemical substances from ecosystems are used for medical purposes
What are managed areas used for?
crops and live stock
What are regulating services offered by ecosystems?
The operational management systems that maintain the planet. They keep the system going
What are examples of the regulating services offered by ecosystems?
Climate regulation, water cycle, disease and pest regulation, natural hazard regulation, water and air purification, waste treatment, pollinators
How do ecosystems regulate the climate?
By removing CO2 through the use of Forests ( green spaces that take in CO2 as fuel), Oceans, and CO2 sinks
What is evapotranspiration?
The sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere
How does evapotranspiration contribute to the water cycle?
movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and water bodies.
How does the ecosystem regulate disease and pests?
Healthy intact ecosystems are able to fight off invasive species; Can also control insect population.
How does the ecosystem regulate natural hazards?
Barrier islands and wetlands resist storm surges
How reliant are plants on pollinators?
90 percent of plants rely on pollinators, including crops
What are examples of the supporting services?
Nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary production
What are examples of cultural services offered by ecosystems?
Aesthetic, Spiritual , Educational, Recreational
What are cultural services provided by the ecosystems?
social services offered by the ecosystem?
What are supporting services provided by the ecosystem?
Who created the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment?
What were the findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment?
60 percent of ecosystems are being degraded or unsustainable used;
Freshwater functions are declining at an unsustainable rate;
Increases the risk of non-linear rapid changes (catastrophic);
We cannot replace the functions of the ecosystem with technology
How much is the ecosystem worth according to Costanza?
In 1997, he deciding it was worth between 16 and 54 trillion per year
What was the world GDP in 2010?
Who creased the idea of bio-mimicry?
What are the Nine Principles of Bio-Mimicry?
Nature: runs on sunlight, uses only the energy it needs, fits form to function, recycles everything, rewards cooperation, banks on diversity, demands local expertise, curbs excess from within, taps power of limits (optimize rather than maximize)
What is the spirit of the nine principles of bio-mimicry?
Efficiency and long-tern thought above all else
What are the steps for an ecologically sensitive design process?
1) Know where you are/ Know the site (site assessment)
2) Avoid sensitive areas
3) minimize infrastructure impacts
4) mitigate unavoidable losses
5) improve ecological function where possible
How can you assess your site in terms of ecological sensitivity?
Conduct a site assessment in order to determine (1) how the site fits into the ecosystem and (2) the location of important ecological areas (Wetlands, floodplains, corridors, habitats, threatened species)
What are examples of sensitive areas to avoid?
Areas containing certain species, prime habitats, corridors, and transition zones
Which species habitats should you avoid?
Keystone species, vulnerable/rare species, migratory species
What are examples of prime habitats?
Old growth forests, wetlands, lands that are habitats to valuable species
What is a corridor?
The land that connect animals to necessary resources like other habitats or to fresh water
What is a transition zone?
The boundary between two ecosystems, that provides benefits to both ecosystems. Tends to have abundant wildlife
How can you best minimize the impacts of infrastructure?
Integrate as best as possible, structures don't sit on-top of an ecosystem they become apart of it
What goals do you hope to accomplish by minimizing the impact of infrastructure?
-Maintain pre-development hydrology, nutrient import'and and plant cover
-Avoid introduction of invasive species
Where are the best places to build?
-Previously disturbed areas
-Areas infiltrated by invasive or exotic species
-previously frequented, isolated areas
-areas away from wetlands and floodplains
-edge of large and intact communities
What are examples of previously disturbed areas?
Brownfield spaces, vacant lots in urban areas/suburban areas, abandoned agricultural fields
What is a good rule of thumb for picking where to build?
Pick the choice that will have the least damage
How can you maintain connectivity in a habitat?
-Avoid existing corridors and installing barriers
-use wildlife crossings
What are examples of barriers?
Roads, fences, lights, culverts, changes in vegetation
How do you design wildlife crossings?
-Locate where animals cross roads and barriers
-Straight (see end to end)
- as high as possible
- use fences to funnel animals towards the crossings
-over passes for larger animals; underpasses for smaller animals
What do Sustainable Designers?
-Incorporate ecological awareness
-Foster integrative design process
What is the main challenge for sustainable designers?
meet the needs of an expanding population in the face of dwindling resources and environmental problems
What balanced must be reached for sustainable designers?
A balance between natural systems and human requirements for food, water, shelter, and energy
When can engineers be most effective in making infrastructure sustainable?
Early in the design process
What is synergy?
The interaction of elements that when combined, produce a total effect greater than the sum of the individual contributions
What is the relationship between energy and water?
It takes water to make energy, it takes energy to make water
What is a urban water systems?
A massive public investment in a system to withdraw, treat, store, distribute, collect, re-treat, discharge water; pretty effective
What is the problem with urban water systems?
It treats water to a single level, a binary system
What is a binary water treatment system?
Water is either clean or dirty
Which way should water cleanliness be though of?
As a continuum; with varying degrees of cleanliness
What is the curse of a binary system?
You are force to treat to the level of a centralized treatment plant. You are forced to produce higher value water (higher quality)
What are the highest costs of water treatment caused by for higher quality water?
What are the highest costs of water treatment caused by for water?
Develop marginal sources of water, degradation of existing water supplies
How are US regions classified in terms of water usage?
Water reused, capture and stored, flood control, storm-water management
What characterizes a "water reuse" region?
-low average rainfall and limited rainfall events
-focus on maximizing available water
Areas: Arizona, Southern California
What characterizes a "capture an store" region?
-low average rainfall but significant events
Areas: Great plains
What characterizes a "flood control" region?
-Fairly high average and significant events, concerned with storm-water and flooding
-Northeast and Midwest
What characterizes a "storm-water" region?
-Consistently high average
-Occasional events focus on stormwater management
What is a non-point source pollution?
Runoff water that picks up pollution from a variety of sources; most pollution
What is a wastewater discharge?
treated wastewater or untreated stormwater discharged to a body
Combined sewer discharge?
Sanitary sewer and storm in one pipe and travels to treatment plant
What is the problem with combined sewer discharge?
1) Forces you to treat storm-water when it doesn't require treatment
2) If their is a significant storm event, you are forced to bypass (discharge untreated water into bodies of water)
What is waste?
A subjective term, that has no method of quantification
What are the classification of storm-water?
-Natural runoff that occurs during precipitation not really waste
What are the classification of gray-water?
Human waste water that comes from bathroom sinks showers, bathtubs, and laundry facilities
What is the treatment for grey or blackwater?
Easily to treat to be reused for non-potable use, (toilets, irrigation, etc)
What are the classification of black-water?
-Human wastewater from toilets, kitchen sinks, dishwashers
-dry cleaning water may contain chemicals
-industrial facilities may contain chemicals
What is the treatment for black-water?
Requires tertiary treatment before non potable use
What are the negative effects of storm-water runoff?
Flooding and pollution
What factors affect the quantity of runoff within a watershed?
-size of watershed
-soil and terrain
-amount of precipitation
What is a watershed?
A watershed is an area of land that drains all the streams and rainfall to a common outlet such as the outflow of a reservoir, mouth of a bay, or any point along a stream channel
What sources does pollution from runoff come from?
-Runoff of dissolved chemicals in soil
-Applied chemicals absorbed or dissolved in runoff
-Microbes from animals waste
-Industrial chemicals spilled or improperly stored
-Automotive fluids and wastes
What is the purpose of the US Federal Clean Water Act?
To established regulations limiting the levels of contaminants in waterways
What is a point source pollutant?
A pollutant discharged through a pipe or ditch
How are point source pollutants regulated?
Through National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Permits
What are the best way to control non-point source pollutants?
Best Management Practices
What is a Detention Basin?
-temporarily detains the water onsite (2 to 3 hours)
- plants must be drought resistant
- many put in during the late 90's early 00's
What is a retention basin?
-a man-made pond to hold water between storm events
-usually with vegetation along the perimeter
-allows time for sediments to settle out
What are detention ponds used for?
To control point sources and control discharge
What permit is used for detention ponds?
What does MS4 stand for?
Municipal Separate Storm-water Sewer
What are the three solutions to a combined sewer system?
-Keep combined system and install reservoir
-Store storm-water in streets
-Store as much storm-water as possible on individual properties
What is the downside of installing a new system in order as a solution to the combined sewer problem?
It is high in cost and disruptive
What cities have used a reservoir as a solution to the combined sewer problem?
Chicago and Miluakuekee
What is the downside of storing storm-watering in the streets as a solution to the combined sewer problem?
The streets are flooded
What is the design technique used to store storm-watering in the streets as a solution to the combined sewer problem?
make the storm drains smaller
What is the design technique use a new system to the combined sewer problem?
install only one new system for either the sewer or storm-water; use the old system for one and the new system for the other in order to separate the sewer and storm-water
What is green infrastructure" or "low impact development"
The storm-water management technique of storing as much storm-water as possible on individual properties
What are Sarte's stormwater management design principles?
-Manage at the source (try not to macromanage at large treatment facilities)
-Treat as a resource
-Retain and reuse water onsite
What are the 4 types of benefits that we receive from Low Impact Development?
What are the environmental benefits from Low Impact Development (LID)?
Improved air quality and erosion control
What are the ecological benefits from Low Impact Development (LID)?
Habitat creation; increased biodiversity
What are the economic benefits from Low Impact Development (LID)?
reduction of heat island effect
What are the social benefits from Low Impact Development (LID)?
Traffic calming; passive recreation
What are Low Impact Development Design Considerations?
-Minimize soil disruption during construction
-Incorporate LID strategies into the design
-Design facilities properly
-Account for natural processes
- use non Landscape Alternatives
-use proprietary devices that filter the stormwater, settle solids, remove soils.
- used urban stormwater Treatment Strategies
How can you design a facility property?
Size the facility and site the facility
What natural processes should be taken into consideration when designing for LID?
Filtration, microorganisms, photolytic reactions, and material absoprtion
Notes on Filtration:
by vegetation through reduced velocity
Notes on Microorganism:
soil and plant life
Notes on Photolytic reaction:
exposure to sunlight will reduce the VOC's in the water
Notes on Material Absorption:
plants and mulch absorbs hydrocarbons and nutrients
What are the different types of urban stormwater treatment stratgies?
-vegetated swales ( bio-swales)
-vegetated filter strip
What is a vegetated swale?
shallow drainage way that uses landscaping to provide water treatment.
What are usage and condition requirements for bio-swales?
Typically located along inside of side' the longer the more treatment
What is a vegetated filter strip?
gently sloped area with vegetation to provide filtration
What are stormwater planters?
Narrow landscaped area formed in hard-scape (sidewalks)
What is a curb extension?
Landscaped area created by extending curb into roadway
What are Rain Gardens?
Landscaped bepressions that are built to any size or shape.
Also known as bio-retention cells.
Allows water to pond and infiltrate
Why are green roofs beneficial?
Good way to slow runoff from building roof
What are the two types of green roofs?
Extensive and Intensive
What are the specifications for extensive green roofs?
Thin layer of soil, 6 inches, with ground cover types of plants. Fairly light and relatively inexpensive
What are the specifications for intensive green roofs?
Thicker soil layer (2 feet or more).
Uses, larger plants like grasses, shrubs, small trees.
What are the pros of green roofs?
Detains runoff due to plant uptake, reduced heat loss
What are the three materials used for pervious pavement?
-Reinforced gravel or grass parking
What is the downside of pervious concrete/asphalt?
It requires maintanence
How are gravel or grass parking pervious pavement solutions reinforced?
using plastic mesh or grid
What are some barriers to LID strategies?
Inadequate Local Support, Cost, Site Constraints,
What are some of the local support barriers that LID strategies face?
education, patients, available literature
What are ways to that combat the cost associated with introducing LID strategies?
start small and keep it simple?
Why is cost especially an issue when introducing LID strategies?
Contractors may be unfamiliar with LID construction
What is transect zoning method?
A method for approaching community planning
What are the site constraints for LID development?
-Lack of space
How can a lack of space be over come in LID design?
With early coordination
How can a steep slope be over come in LID design?
check dams or tiered planter will slow the flow
What may cause a steep slope on a site consider for LID?
How can poor soil be over come in LID design?
Soils have limited infiltration capacity, under drain system may be necessary
How can utility issues be over come in LID design?
coordination with existing utilities; new construction, separate utilities fro LID construction
How can maintenance issues be over come in LID design?
By using irrigation, biannual inspection, trash removal.
What are the irrigation maintenance requirements?
Required for the first two dry seasons
What are the biannual inspection maintenance requirements?
once early in the wet season and once early in the dry season; check for erosion, ponding, overflow, and plant health
What are the trash removal maintenance requirements?
Monthly or biannually
What are the divided lands in the transect zoning method?
T1: completely nature
T4: general urban
T5: urban center zone
T6: urban core zone
T7: special district
Who created Best Management Practices (BMP's)?
Water Quality Act - Modified CWA
When were Best Management Practices (BMP's) created?
How was Phase I of Best Management Practices (BMP's) created?
established NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System)
Who does Phase I of Best Management Practices (BMP's) apply to?
Covers MS4 with population > 100,000
How was Phase I of Best Management Practices (BMP's) created?
What are uses for greywater?
What are the requirement to use greywater for above ground irrigation?
Must be treated
What are the requirement to use greywater for subsurface irrigation?
May be used without / or with minimal treatment
How has California used greywater?
Since 1994 they have used greywater for irrigation
How has southwestern united states and Australia used greywater?
they are just beginning to use it for irrigation
What is a single-use greywater treatment system intended for?
one house, single user
What is a multi-use greywater treatment system intended for?
Apartment complexes or communities
What level of treatment must a multi-use greywater treatment system achieve?
may require high levels of treatment
What are the treatment techniques used?
In ascending order:
What physical treatment methods can be used for greywater?
-discharge through mulch or organic material
-sand or membrane filter
Describe the prepackaged system biological treatment method for greywater?
-A prepackaged system
-sand with microbes or a treated membrane filter (bio-film)
-requires sludge removal(backwashing)
What physical treatment methods can be used for greywater?
-A prepackaged system
(usually this one
What is a constructed wetlands?
-May be used as a biological treatment (not for a dry region) for greywater
-shallow, vegetated area, water works through the system slowly allowing biological functions and improve habitat
What disinfection methods can be used for greywater?
What chemicals are used for disinfection?
Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, or iodine
Which disinfection method is preferred?
What are the downsides to UV radiation as a disinfection method?
It is expensive and energy intensive
How many levels of treatment are required for black water?
All three (physical, biological, chemical) basically all of 438
What is the second best option for water treatment for blackwater?
Infiltration (dilution and putting it directly into the environment)
What is the best option for water treatment for blackwater?
treatment then ree usonsite for irrigation, toilet flushing etc
What are the 5 areas of ecological damage?
Direct habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, damage to the physical environment, chemical toxicity, introduction of exotic species
What are the effects of direct habitat loss?
Elimination of locations where species and ecosystems are located
What causes habitat fragmentation?
Roadways, fences, barriers installed that split a habitat and restricts the movement of animals
What are the effects of damage to the physical environment?
Damage to critical resources may lead to impact of the population size
What are the effects of chemical toxicity?
May poison population or damage food supply
What are the broad effects of an exotic species on an ecosystem?
Loss of biodiversity, may overpopulate and outcompete native species
What is the manifestation of the effects of an exotic species on an ecosystem?
-Loss of top predator
(you could loss a habitat which kills off a predator, causes another, species to overpopulate, boom then bust) -> wolves and deer
-Loss of base food Chain
(fossil fuel use lead to deforestation and climate change, kills off krill, decline in other populations)
What are the impacts specific to roadways?
§ Road kill
§ Impacts migration
What are the impacts specific to urban centers?
§ Habitat destruction
§ Use of water resources
§ Increased stormwater runoff
What are the impacts specific to stormwater runoff?
§ Chemicals (N and P usually)
§ Loss of stream habitat - hydromodification
What are the impacts specific to dams?
§ Habitat loss
§ Altered hydrology
§ Loss of sediment downstream
§ Habitat fragmentation
What are the impacts specific to Power Generation?
§ Elevated water temperature
§ Habitat fragmentation (powerline corridors)
§ Contamination from accidental spills
How has infrastructure impacted the US?
§ Loss of 60% of natural vegetation
§ Loss of 53% of wetlands
§ Habitat destruction is the leading to species loss
§ Urban Sprawling is a major contributor to habitat destruction
How has infrastructure impacted the world?
· Impact on World
o Historically for every 1000 species, extinction rate is 1 per 1000 years
§ Rate now is 80 per 1000 years
Who regulates construction of constructed wetlands?
the Army Corps of Engineers maintains control over designated wetlands in the US
What is a biome?
-large regions with similar climate and vegetation
-there are terrestrial biomes and aquatic biomes
What is the ascending structure of natural systems?
What is a Tropical rainforest?
-Tropical woodland with annual rainfall of at least 100 inches
-broadleaf evergreen trees form a continuous canopy
What is a Savanna?
Grassland ecosystem characterized by trees being sufficiently widely spaced so the canopy does not close
What is a Desert?
rainfall less than 50 centimeters per year; some specialized vegetation (not necessarily always hot)
What is a Chaparral?
-characterized by different types of terrain; shrub land
- fires and drought are common; mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers; California to Baja California
What is a Prairie?
temperate grassland with grasses, herbs (seed bearing plant without a woody stem) and shrubs but no trees
What is a Temperate deciduous forest?
Variety of broadleaf trees and shrubs
mid-latitudes with average annual temperature approximately 50 degrees
average annual rainfall approximately 40 inches
go through four seasons (leaves change color in fall, fall off in winter, grow back in spring...adaptation to allow plants to survive the winter)
What is a Coniferous forests?
Comprised of mainly cone-bearing trees with needle-like leaves
stay green all winter
able to survive short cool summers and long harsh winters
What is a Tundra?
Vast, flat treeless arctic plane with permanently frozen subsoil
What are Lakes and ponds?
Inland body of water shallow enough to support rooted plants (pond) or so deep that light does not reach the bottom (lake)
What are Rivers and streams?
Bodies of flowing water that move in one direction, generally on a definite course or channel
What are Freshwater marsh?
non-tidal biomes containing little or no peat; water flows into and out of the system
What are bogs?
North America's most distinctive wetland, characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic water and moss; water may flow or may be from precipitation
What are swamp?
wetland surrounded by forest-like attributes such as trees, grass and soil
What are wetlands?
a land area saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, that supports aquatic plants
What are sand dunes?
a hill of sand built by wind or flowing water
What is a continental shelf?
underwater landmass that extends from a continent, generally less than 200 meters below the surface of the ocean
What is a salt marsh?
Coastal ecosystem between land and open salt water or brackish water that is regularly flooded by tides; dominated by salt-tolerant plants such as grasses and low shrubs that are essential in binding sediments; plays an important role in the aquatic food web; supports terrestrial animals and provides coastal protection from storms
What is a cropland?
land that is fit or used for growing crops
What is a pasture?
land covered with grass and low shrubs suitable for grazing
What is aquaculture?
breeding, growing, and harvesting of plants or animals in a water environment
What is bio-retention?
process of collecting stormwater in a treatment area, generally consisting of a sand bed, an organic layer of topsoil, and plants
What is an urban ecosystem?
Community of plants, animals and humans that inhabit an urban environment (within a city or town)
What is suburban ecosystem?
community of plants, animals and humans that inhabit a suburban environment (district immediately outside a city or town)
What is an ecosystem?
community of living organisms in conjunction with non-living components interacting as a system
What is an symbiotic relationship?
each species benefits
What is an exudates?
fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound (sweat, blood, sap, etc.)
What is a trophic structure?
position an organism occupies on the food chain
What is autotrophs?
a producer; an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances using light or inorganic chemical compounds (plants or algae)
What are heterotrophs?
consumers of autotrophs
What are the broad approaches to measuring sustainability?
1)Accounts using quantitative data
2)Narrative assessment including data graphs, and maps
3)indicator based approach using quantitative analysis with text
`What is the best approach to measuring sustainability?
Indicator method: Works well, fairly accurate, works over time
What is the Life Cycle Cost Analysis also known as?
Cost Benefit Analysis?
What is resilience?
The ability of a system to recover over time after a disturbance?
What is carrying capacity?
measure of the amount of a resource compared to demand for a resource
What is footprinting?
measuring of sustainability that is understood intuitively in terms of individual, regional, or national impact on a particular entity
What is an ecological footprint?
need carrying capacity for a given population; expressed as an area of land required by a group of people to provide the resource and assimilate the waste
What is an indicator?
Measures one aspect of sustainability (water or carbon footprinting)
What is a composite indicator?
Compilation of indicators into one index ( LEED or Envision i.e)
How is footprinting derived?
From consumption of a resource, with a conversion factor applied to changes to footprint (Ecological, water, and carbon)
What are the two ways to calculate ecological footprints?
Compound calculations, component-based calculations
What is the procedure of a compound calculation?
Analyze consumption of approximately 60 resources, method used to determine of large population (region or nation)
What are the units of the compound calculation?
The consumption is divided by the global average for the type of land area of land in global hectare (ghe)
How is the compound calculation found?
the consumption is divided by the global average for the type of land
When is a component-based calculation used?
For individuals or institution because its closer to a LCA approach.
What is the ecological footprint for the entire planet?
18 billion gha, 2.7 ghaper person
What is the earth's carrying capacity?
1.8 gha per person
What are the BRIICS countries?
Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa
What is Carbon Foot printing a measure of?
Greenhouse gas produced
What are two methods of measuring greenhouse gas?
The greenhouse gas protocol (international), in North America we use the climate registry
What is GHG measured in terms of?
What 3 scopes are considered for greenhouse gas assessment?
-scope 1 (direct emissions)
-scope 2 ( scope 1 + energy imports)
-scope 3 (scope 2 +all indirect GHG emissions)
What are direct emissions?
Only emissions under the direct control of an institution
What tools are used to complete a greenhouse gas assessment?
-carbon footprint LTD
-EPA household emissions calculator
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
An international treaty for climate change.
What main greenhouse cases are targeted by the kyoto protocol.
Carbon dioxide (CO2);
• Methane (CH4);
• Nitrous oxide (N2O);
• Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
• Perfluorocarbons (PFCs); and
• Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
What are the synthetic GHG?
• Perfluorocarbons (PFCs); and
• Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
What is a water footprint?
the volume of water:
-used directly in a household
-used for the production of goods and services
What is a green water footprint?
The foot print associated with agriculture
Volume of rainwater consumed in the production of goods
What is a blue water footprint?
freshwater take, from an underground or surface that is not returned to where is was originally taken
What is a grey water footprint?
The volume of water require to dilute pollutants in process water to raise process water to the level of ambient water
What are the national water footprinting measures?
Internal and external water footprinting
What is an internal water footprint?
water used from domestic water sources
What is an external water footprint?
water used in other countries to produce goods imported into the subject country
What is emergy?
Embodied energy, the amount of energy consumed directly and indirect to make a product (expressed in "emjoule")
What is exergy?
the amount of energy that can extracted from a system
What is Peat?
brown, soil-like material consisting of partly decomposed vegetation or organic matter.
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