83 terms

Science VIM Learning Sets 1, 2, & 3 Vocab

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Criteria
goals that must be satisfied to successfully achieve a challenge
Constraint
Factors that limit how you can solve a problem
Coast
To move without being continually pushed or pulled
Chassis
The frame and wheels of a vehicle
Axles
Round shafts that connect the opposing wheels of a car
Bearings
Structures that help parts move freely
Motion
A change in a position of an object over time
Speed
Measure of how fast an object is traveling
Force
A push or a pull
Propulsion Force
A push or a pull that causes an object to move
Gravity
The force of attraction between objects
Qualitative Data
Information describing the qualities of objects observed, but not measured
Quantitative Data
Information based on measurement or counting
Reference Point
A location with which the position of an object is compared over time to determine if that is moving.
Frame of Reference
The view from which you judge the motion of an object
Baseline
A specific value or values that can serve as a basis for comparison
Iteration
A repetition that attempts to improve on a process or product
Iterate
To perform repetitions to improve on a process or product
Veer (Noun)
A change in direction or course
Veer (Verb)
To change direction or course
Acceleration
A change over time in the speed or direction or the speed and direction of motion.
Friction
A force that opposes motion.
System
A set of parts so related or interconnected that they work as a whole.
Subsystem
A system within a system that has its own function.
Lubrication
A substance (such as oil or grease) between two surfaces to reduce friction.
Fair Test
A test in which only one factor (variable) is changed and all other conditions are kept the same.
Scale
The ration of measurements in a representation or model of an object to the actual object.
Velocity
An object's speed and direction.
Elapsed Time
The time it takes to travel between a starting point and an ending point.
Perpendicular
At right angles.
Magnitude
Greatness or extend of size.
Net Force
The overall force acting on an object, when all individual forces acting on the object are added together.
Balances Forces
Forces opposite in direction and equal in magnitude; balanced forces have a net force of 0.
Unbalanced Forces
Forces that do not produce a net force of 0.
Normal Force
The force that comes from the surface on which the object is located.
Propulsion System
A set of parts that produce a force to make an object move forward
Work
when a force exerted on an object causes the object to move in the same direction as the force.
Energy
the capacity to move something from an at rest position. Energy has many different forms.
Kinetic Energy
The energy associated with an object in motion.
Potential Energy
The energy that is stored in an object as a result of its position or condition
Variable
A quantity whose value may change (vary) over the course of an experiment
Independent Variable (Manipulated)
in an experiment, a variable whose value is manipulated, or changed, by the experimenter, to observe its effects on another variable
Dependent Variable (Responding)
in an experiment, a variable whose value changes when the value of the independent variable is changed.
Controlled Variables
In an experiment, the variables that are kept the same each time the procedure is performed.
Hypothesis
a prediction of what will happen between an independent variable and a dependent variable.
Trend
A general direction in which something tends to change; also, the way the dependent variable tends to change when the independent variable is changed
Action Force
a force exerted by one object on a second object
Reaction Force
the equal, but opposite, force exerted by the second object back on the first object in response to an action force
Contact Force
A force that acts between two objects that are directly touching. The normal force is an example of a contact force.
Non-Contact Force
A force that acts between objects that are not touching. Gravity is an example of a non-contact force.
Spring Scale
a toll used by scientists to measure the size (magnitude) of a force by how much it stretches a spring
Newton (N)
A unit of measurement for forces.
Weightless
having little or no apparent gravitational pull
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
Weight
the force of an object due to gravity
Attraction
the force that draws objects together
Newton's First Law of Motion
an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in at a constant speed in the same direction unless an unbalanced force acts on it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion
the acceleration of an object depends on the magnitude of the net force acting on it and the mass of the object.
Newton's Third Law of Motion
for every force exerted on an object a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is also exerted by the object
Inverse Relationship
A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases.
Direct Relationship
A relationship between two variables that increase or decrease together. (as one increases, the other increases)
Indicator
A sign that gives useful information, and can be observed, measured, or calculated.
Thought Experiment
When a scientist imagines what might happen.
Inertia
The tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion.
A ______________________ is a specialist who works to fill specific needs by developing new products.
design engineer
An evaluation using words and descriptions, but without measurements, is considered to be ______________ data.
qualitative
Measuring a vehicle's performance before making changes provides you with a ___________________________ to determine the effects of subsequent iterations on the performance of the vehicle.
standard of comparison or baseline
Force can change an object's __________________
speed and direction.
Balls and cylinders use _______________________ friction to replace ________________________ friction.
rolling, sliding
Using a scale of 1 to 36, 2 inches on a model would equal how many inches in the actual item? How many feet? How many yards?
72 inches, 6 feet, 2 yards
What is the mathematical relationship between speed, distance and time?
Speed = Distance/Time
As an object is falling from a 100 meter tall cliff, at 25 meters from the top of the cliff, the potential energy is (greater than, less than, or equal to) the kinetic energy.
greater than
The net force acting on a car is equal to the propulsion force ___________ the frictional force.
minus
The force of friction always _____________ motion.
opposes
The "effect" variable is called the ____________________________ variable.
responding or dependent
The variable that is held constant to increase the likelihood that an experiment will be a fair test is called the ________________ variable.
controlled
A small fly collides with the windshield of a large truck. The force the truck applies on the fly is ________________ the force the fly applies on the truck's windshield. (Remember Newton's 3rd Law)
equal to
Name the Four non-contact forces.
• Gravity • Electrostatic • Magnetic • Nuclear
An object will ___________________ anytime a net force is applied to that object.
accelerate
The average speed of an object is equal to the change of the distance ___________________ the elapsed time.
divided by
A car traveling 60 miles in 60 minutes has an average speed in miles per hour (mph) of _________________
60 mph.
According to Newton's second law of motion, for a given force, acceleration and mass are ____________________ related. (f=ma)
inversely
A runner at the end of a race is getting tired and slowing down. Which do we know about the runner's acceleration?
It is negative acceleration.