83 terms

Criteria

goals that must be satisfied to successfully achieve a challenge

Constraint

Factors that limit how you can solve a problem

Coast

To move without being continually pushed or pulled

Chassis

The frame and wheels of a vehicle

Axles

Round shafts that connect the opposing wheels of a car

Bearings

Structures that help parts move freely

Motion

A change in a position of an object over time

Speed

Measure of how fast an object is traveling

Force

A push or a pull

Propulsion Force

A push or a pull that causes an object to move

Gravity

The force of attraction between objects

Qualitative Data

Information describing the qualities of objects observed, but not measured

Quantitative Data

Information based on measurement or counting

Reference Point

A location with which the position of an object is compared over time to determine if that is moving.

Frame of Reference

The view from which you judge the motion of an object

Baseline

A specific value or values that can serve as a basis for comparison

Iteration

A repetition that attempts to improve on a process or product

Iterate

To perform repetitions to improve on a process or product

Veer (Noun)

A change in direction or course

Veer (Verb)

To change direction or course

Acceleration

A change over time in the speed or direction or the speed and direction of motion.

Friction

A force that opposes motion.

System

A set of parts so related or interconnected that they work as a whole.

Subsystem

A system within a system that has its own function.

Lubrication

A substance (such as oil or grease) between two surfaces to reduce friction.

Fair Test

A test in which only one factor (variable) is changed and all other conditions are kept the same.

Scale

The ration of measurements in a representation or model of an object to the actual object.

Velocity

An object's speed and direction.

Elapsed Time

The time it takes to travel between a starting point and an ending point.

Perpendicular

At right angles.

Magnitude

Greatness or extend of size.

Net Force

The overall force acting on an object, when all individual forces acting on the object are added together.

Balances Forces

Forces opposite in direction and equal in magnitude; balanced forces have a net force of 0.

Unbalanced Forces

Forces that do not produce a net force of 0.

Normal Force

The force that comes from the surface on which the object is located.

Propulsion System

A set of parts that produce a force to make an object move forward

Work

when a force exerted on an object causes the object to move in the same direction as the force.

Energy

the capacity to move something from an at rest position. Energy has many different forms.

Kinetic Energy

The energy associated with an object in motion.

Potential Energy

The energy that is stored in an object as a result of its position or condition

Variable

A quantity whose value may change (vary) over the course of an experiment

Independent Variable (Manipulated)

in an experiment, a variable whose value is manipulated, or changed, by the experimenter, to observe its effects on another variable

Dependent Variable (Responding)

in an experiment, a variable whose value changes when the value of the independent variable is changed.

Controlled Variables

In an experiment, the variables that are kept the same each time the procedure is performed.

Hypothesis

a prediction of what will happen between an independent variable and a dependent variable.

Trend

A general direction in which something tends to change; also, the way the dependent variable tends to change when the independent variable is changed

Action Force

a force exerted by one object on a second object

Reaction Force

the equal, but opposite, force exerted by the second object back on the first object in response to an action force

Contact Force

A force that acts between two objects that are directly touching. The normal force is an example of a contact force.

Non-Contact Force

A force that acts between objects that are not touching. Gravity is an example of a non-contact force.

Spring Scale

a toll used by scientists to measure the size (magnitude) of a force by how much it stretches a spring

Newton (N)

A unit of measurement for forces.

Weightless

having little or no apparent gravitational pull

Mass

the amount of matter in an object

Weight

the force of an object due to gravity

Attraction

the force that draws objects together

Newton's First Law of Motion

an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in at a constant speed in the same direction unless an unbalanced force acts on it.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

the acceleration of an object depends on the magnitude of the net force acting on it and the mass of the object.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

for every force exerted on an object a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is also exerted by the object

Inverse Relationship

A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases.

Direct Relationship

A relationship between two variables that increase or decrease together. (as one increases, the other increases)

Indicator

A sign that gives useful information, and can be observed, measured, or calculated.

Thought Experiment

When a scientist imagines what might happen.

Inertia

The tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion.

A ______________________ is a specialist who works to fill specific needs by developing new products.

design engineer

An evaluation using words and descriptions, but without measurements, is considered to be ______________ data.

qualitative

Measuring a vehicle's performance before making changes provides you with a ___________________________ to determine the effects of subsequent iterations on the performance of the vehicle.

standard of comparison or baseline

Force can change an object's __________________

speed and direction.

Balls and cylinders use _______________________ friction to replace ________________________ friction.

rolling, sliding

Using a scale of 1 to 36, 2 inches on a model would equal how many inches in the actual item? How many feet? How many yards?

72 inches, 6 feet, 2 yards

What is the mathematical relationship between speed, distance and time?

Speed = Distance/Time

As an object is falling from a 100 meter tall cliff, at 25 meters from the top of the cliff, the potential energy is (greater than, less than, or equal to) the kinetic energy.

greater than

The net force acting on a car is equal to the propulsion force ___________ the frictional force.

minus

The force of friction always _____________ motion.

opposes

The "effect" variable is called the ____________________________ variable.

responding or dependent

The variable that is held constant to increase the likelihood that an experiment will be a fair test is called the ________________ variable.

controlled

A small fly collides with the windshield of a large truck. The force the truck applies on the fly is ________________ the force the fly applies on the truck's windshield. (Remember Newton's 3rd Law)

equal to

Name the Four non-contact forces.

• Gravity • Electrostatic • Magnetic • Nuclear

An object will ___________________ anytime a net force is applied to that object.

accelerate

The average speed of an object is equal to the change of the distance ___________________ the elapsed time.

divided by

A car traveling 60 miles in 60 minutes has an average speed in miles per hour (mph) of _________________

60 mph.

According to Newton's second law of motion, for a given force, acceleration and mass are ____________________ related. (f=ma)

inversely

A runner at the end of a race is getting tired and slowing down. Which do we know about the runner's acceleration?

It is negative acceleration.