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Iran Hostage Crisis
Terms in this set (8)
Created into a country after the breakup of Ottoman Empire at the completion of WWI. Was controlled by Britain and Soviets early on in its history until the early 50's. US involvement in Iran was motivated by oil interests and Cold War rivalry with USSR.
Mohammed Reze Pahlovi (Shah of Iran)
Backed by US in exchange for oil. Iran recieves military and economic aid for over 20 years from US. Many Iranian were angered by Shah's alliance with a non Muslim country.
Leader of religious nationalists who led rebellion against the Shah. Anti-American. Exiled in 1963 from Iran.
Revolution Against the Shah
Between 1963-1979 the Shah spent billions of oil dollars on military weapons. Angered many Iranians nationalists. Economy suffers, loss of popular support. The Shah restricts democratic freedoms of Iranian people (dictator style). Nationalist group leads rebellion against the Shah. The Shah feed Iran January 1979, never to return. Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran and led Iranian nationalist into extreme anti-Americanism.
Hostage Crisis in Iran
Shah is allowed into the US for cancer treatment after much debate. Angers the Ayatollah into attacking the US embassy in Tehran November 1979. US Embassy was seized Iranian militants and college students who claimed to be Khomeini's disciples.
Separated into small groups and not allowed to communicate. Always blindfolded when taken out of their rooms. Inadequate food and medical attention. Psychological stress. Lasted 444 days (1 year, 2 and 1/2 months).
Results for US
Humiliation, symbol of a weakening America, dramatic change in foreign policy (terrorism), military assertiveness and preparedness, increase in defense budget
Results for Iran
World viewed Iran (Ayatollah Khomeini) as "bad guy", Arab nations felt Iran is hero, Iraq (Iran's enemy) will now be backed by US
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