The Welfare State
What institutions did the welfare state radically change?
Health, social welfare and education
What did the state provide in exchange for increased taxation?
Free health care, higher old age and disability pensions and better educational opportunities
How did the unionist party feel about the welfare state?
They did not want to implement it, they were against radical social change and had strong links with the conservative party
Why did the unionist party implement the welfare state?
They were bound to implement the policies of the government in London
Who was prime minister of Northern Ireland when the welfare state was being implemented?
Basil Brooke (later Lord Brookeborough)
What agreement was reached between the governments in Belfast and London in 1946?
NI was to enjoy the same level of social services as the rest of the UK
What did NI get agree to in exchange for increased funding from the British government?
Increased control by the British treasury
When was the last time NI's healthcare had advanced significantly?
What was the state of NI's healthcare in the 1940's?
It lagged behind the rest of the UK
What could the better off sections of society do if they fell ill?
They could pay for private healthcare
What did the poorer sections of NI have to depend on for healthcare?
The underfunded and inadequate public health system
What was set up in 1948?
What did the NHS introduce?
Free medical service for all, the ability to attend a doctor of your choice and all healthcare and medicines were now free
What was TB responsible for in NI during the '40s?
Half the deaths in the 15-25 age group
What was set up in 1941?
The Tuberculosis Authority
How was the rate of death from tuberculosis reduced?
An effective screening programme and the use of new drugs
By what year was the rate of TB the same in NI as the rest of the UK?
Why was the impact of the NHS much more dramatic in NI than in the rest of the UK?
The previously awful healthcare made the impact of the NHS much more significant
What was the new system of national insurance?
All workers paid regular contributions into a social insurance fund and they received payments from the state after retirement or when made unemployed
Who received vastly increased social welfare?
The sick, the elderly and widows
How was the low standard of public housing in NI brought to public attention during WWII?
The bombing of Belfast caused high levels of injury and destruction in the closely packed, terraced public houses
Who was the Minister for Health and Local Government?
What did William Grant set up in 1945?
The Northern Ireland Housing Trust
What did the NIHT have the power to do?
Borrow money from the government to build houses
How many houses were built by the NIHT between 1945 and 1963?
Who was unfair in the allocation of housing?
Local unionist controlled authorities
Were the NIHT biased in favour of unionists?
No, they were very fair
How were local authorities biased?
They favoured protestants over catholics in the allocation of public housing
What exam did students sit at the end of primary school?
What happened to those who scored in the top 20% in the 11+?
They were sent to academically focussed grammar schools
What happened to those who scored in the remaining 80% of the 11+?
They were sent to secondary schools that followed a more technical programme
Why were more students now attending schools?
The vast majority no longer had to pay fees and there were increased grants given to schools
What rate did school attendance in NI increase by between 1947 and 1952?
How did 3rd level education become more accessible to students?
There were now grants available to help less well off students attend university
What grievances did the catholics have against the school system?
They felt their schools received lower grants and they felt the state was gaining too much control over education
What grievances did the protestants have against the school system?
They were alarmed by the reduced role of religious education in schools
Who was the Minister for Education?
Why did the protestants dislike Colonel Hall-Thompson?
They blamed him for the reduced role of religious education in schools
Why did Colonel Hall-Thompson resign in 1949?
Brookeborough refused to support his plans for pensions for catholic teachers
What were the long term effects of the educational reforms?
Children of both communities were staying in school for onger and attending university in greater numbers
What impact did increased attendance of university have on the catholic community?
It created a generation of educated and articulate catholics who were unwilling to but up with protestant discrimination and so led to the founding of the civil rights movement