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Transatlantic Encounters & Colonial Beginning & Colonial North America
Terms in this set (71)
The Columbian Exchange
This was the mixing of the old and new world that started when Columbus landed in the new world. The old world brought disease (flu, measles, small pox, etc.), domesticated animals, food (wheat, sugar, coffee, rice). The new world gave the old world gold, silver, syphilis, and food (corn, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, vanilla, chocolate, etc.), and Africa brought slave labor
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 - Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles in Africa and Asia
Spanish government's policy to "commend", or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them, part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico
Battle of Acoma
1599 - Fought between Spaniard under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609
A number of settlements and building created by the Spanish in the New World in order to spread religion and stake claims to land.
Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove the Spanish settlers from New Mexico
The Black Legend
This was the concept formed by people in response to the misdeeds of the Spanish upon settling and exploring the Americas. These misdeeds often included mistreating the Native Americans. The concept consisted of the ideas that the Spanish tortured and butchered Natives in the name of Christianity, stole their wealth, and infected them with smallpox. They did mistreat the Natives, but they also built an empire.
Factors of English Migration
The Lost Colony 1585 - Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina
1607 - First permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company
The Starving Time
Winter of 1609-1610: Settlers in Jamestown weren't used to working so that they could eat and so they began to starve. Some resorted to canibilism and others joined nearby tribes.
Alliance of Native American tribes living in the region of the initial Virginia settlement. Powhatan, leader of this alliance, tried to live in peace with the English settlers when they arrived in 1607.
First war fought in 1614, ended with peace settlement by the mairrage of Pochahantas to John Rolfe. In 1622 the Indians attack leaving 347 settlers dead including John Rolfe. Raids drove the Indians farther west. The second war was fought in 1644, was a last ditch effort to dislodge the Virginians, the Indians were agian defeated.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment
In Calvinism, those who publicly proclaimed their experience of conversion and were expect to lead godly lives. All Puritans agreed that only they should be admitted to church membership.
1620 - Agreement to form a majoritarian government in plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony
Colony formed by the Pilgrims when they arrived at Plymouth Rock in 1620. The colonies government was based on Mayflower Compact which was a contract signed by the 41 male colonists from the Mayflower.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in theBay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
The Great Migration
1630-1642 - Migration of 70 thousand refugees from England to the North American colonies primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20 thousand migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose - to eat. a model of Christian settlement in the New World
Protestant Work Ethic
Involved a serious commitment to work and to engage in worldly pursuits. "Good things happen to people who work hard"
1636-1637 - Series of clashes between English settlers and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River valley. Ended in the slaughters of the Pequots by Puritans and their Narragansett Indian allies
New England Confederation
1643 - Weak union of the colonies in Massachusetts and Connecticut led by Puritans for the purposes of defense and organization an early attempt at self-government during the benign neglect of the English Civil War
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
The first constitution written in North America; granted ALL adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in Massachutes
A Dutch colony in North America along the Hudson and lower Delaware rivers although the colony centered in New Amsterdam.
Barbados Slave Code
1661 - First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. Similar statutes were adopted by southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
King Phillips War
1675-1676 - Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades
House of Burgesses
Representative parliamentary assembly created to govern Virginia, eat. a precedent for government in the English colonies
1676 - Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley's refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite
Dominion of New England
1686 - 1689 - Administrative union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent, and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control
1688 - 1689 - Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch James II who was replaced with Dutch-born William III and Mary II, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchal authority
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service, typically between four and seven years their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement
Employed in the tobacco colonies to encourage the importation of indentured servants the system allowed an individual to acquire fifty acres of land if he paid for a laborer's passage to the colony
Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. Mortality rates were notoriously high
After breaking into Hutchinson's store the band, now armed with guns, called for their liberty. As they marched, overseers were killed and reluctant slaves were forced to join the company. The band reached the Edisto River where white colonists descended upon them, killing most of the rebels. The survivors were sold off to the West Indies.
German and Scots Immigration
mostly settling in Pennsylvania and New York. In 1709 a group known as the Palatines made the journey from the Palatinate region of Germany. Many died on the way over on crowded ships, but around 2,100 survived and settled in New York
Between 1710 and 1775, around 200,000 of these Scots-Irish emigrated to what was to become the United States for many of the same reasons that they left Scotland. The majority of these new immigrants ended up first in Pennsylvania. Looking for cheaper land, many then went south down into Virginia and the Carolinas and other southern points; many eventually migrated west to Ohio and Indiana.
Paxton Boys March
1764 - Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans
1768-1771 - Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite
Exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North American colonies, Africa, and West Indies. A small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade
1733 - Tax on imported molasses passed by parliament in an effort to squelch the North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to widespread smuggling
1662 - Agreement allowing unconverted offspring of church members to baptize their children. It signified a waning of religious zeal among second- and third-generation Puritans
Salem Witch Trials
1692-1693 - Series of witchcraft trials launched after a group of adolescent girls in Salem Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women of the town. Twenty individuals were put to death before the trials were put to an end by the governor of Mass
1730s-40s - Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality.
1734-1735 - New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel
King William's War
1689 - 1697 - War fought largely between French trappers, British settlers, and their respective Indian allies. The colonial theater of the larger War of the league of Augsburg in Europe.
Queen Anne's War
1702 - 1713 - Second in a series of conflict between the European powers for control of North America fought between the English and French colonists the North, and the English and Spanish in FL. Under the peace treaty, the French ceded Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to Britain
King George's War
1744 - 1748 - North American theater of Europe's War of Austrian Succession that once again pitted British colonists against their French counterparts in the North. The peace settlement did not involve any territorial realignment, leading to conflict between New England settlers and the British government
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.
French & Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
A group of Virginians who had been sent to Western Pennsylvania to find out what the French were doing in the Ohio River Valley were forced to surrender here after making a failed attempt to defend their hastily-constructed fort from a French attack. This event helped to spark the French & Indian War.
Mission was to capture ft. Duquesne with force of 2000, artillery slowed expedition and had to build roads through the wilderness
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Fall of Quebec
1759 - British under General James Wolfe (1727-59) achieved a dramatic victory when they scaled the cliffs over the city of Quebec to defeat French forces under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham
Fall of Montreal
With the city surrounded, the French had no viable options. Vaudreuil de Cavagnal surrendered on September 8, 1760, which ended the last major campaign of the French and Indian War.
1754 - Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French
1754 - gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Treaty of Paris
1763 - Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
1763 - Bloody campaign waged by Ottawa chief Pontiac to drive the British out of Ohio Country. it was brutally crushed by British troops who resorted to distributing blankets infected with smallpox as means to put down the rebellion
British Proclamation Line
Response to Pontiac's Rebellion and other Indian attacks on Colonies. Forbade settlement west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. Ineffective because settlers had already moved past the line. Angered settlers who did not appreciate Britain's interference.
1688 - 1763 - Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforcement of Navigation Laws. Lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the end of the French & Indian War
Economic theory that closely lined a nation's political and military power to its bullion reserves. Mercantilists generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as means to increase exports
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial post and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England
1764 - Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. It was the first tax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially in response to widespread protests
1765 - Required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists resented the act, which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights
1764 British act forbidding the American colonies to issue paper money as legal tender; act was repealed in 1773 by the British as an effort to ease tensions between themselves and the colonies.
1765 - Widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed in 1766 after mass protest erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of "no taxation without representation" that questioned Parliament's authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims
Stamp Act Congress
1765 - Assembly of delegates from nine colonies who met in NYC to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity